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What are chromosomes?
threadlike structures in the nuclei of cells that contain genetic material
What are genes?
group of nucleotide bases that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions.
How do chromosomes carry hereditary info from one generation to the next?
What are common problems involving chromosomes and what are their consequences?
One more chromosome (21) = Downs
What are the differences between a genotype and a phenotype?
- •The complete set of inherited traits are
- called a genotype
- •How the traits are expressed is called phenotype and is the combined effects
- of genotype and environmental influences
What is the difference between fraternal and identical twins?
- •Dizygotic (fraternal) twins come from two different eggs fertilized by two different
- •Monozygotic (identical) twins come from the
- union of one egg and one sperm that splits in two soon after conception
Why do we study twins?
- •Fraternal twins, while they share much of the
- same experience and environment, have no more genetic similarity than other
- •Identical twins share much of the same
- experience but are also genetically identical
What happens to a fertilized egg in the first 2 weeks after conception?
After fertilization, the zygote travels down the fallopian tube and is implanted in the uterine wall.
What are the periods of prenatal development?
- •Period of the Zygote (Weeks 1-2)
- After fertilization, the zygote travels down the fallopian tube and is implanted in the uterine wall.
- •Period of the Embryo (Weeks 3-8)
- Body structures, internal organs, and the three layers of the embryo (ectoderm, mesoderm, & endoderm) develop. The amniotic sac fills with fluid and the umbilical cord connects the embryo to the placenta.
- •Period of the Fetus (Week 9-Birth)
- –Week 9- Differentiation of the ovaries and testes
–Week 12- Circulatory system begins to function
–Week 16- Movement felt by mother
–Week 32- Age of viability
What is invitro fertilization?
- •Inserting sperm directly into the Fallopian
- tubes. Injecting sperm directly into the egg
What are two principles of growth of the human body?
- •Cephalocaudal Principle
- Growth from head to spine
- •Proximodistal Principle
- Growth from areas close to the body to farthest from body
What is a teratogen?
An agent that causes abnormal prenatal development.
What are the different phases of labor and delivery?
- •Stage 1 lasts 12-24 hours for the first birth
- and includes contractions and the enlargement of the cervix to approximately 10
- •Stage 2 includes the actual birth of the baby
- and lasts about an hour
- •Stage 3 lasts a few minutes and involves
- expelling of the placenta
List 4 complications that can be identified at birth?
Cephlopelvic disproportion - infants head is larger than pelvis
Irregular position - baby is lying crosswise in uterus
Preeclampsia - Mother has high BP
Prolapsed umbilical cord - UC is squeezed shut which cuts off baby's oxygen.
What do we know about infant mortality in the US?
- •Infant Mortality is the number of infants out
- of 1,000 births that die before the age of 1 year
- •U.S. mortality rate is just under 1%, or 7 of
- •15 industrialized nations have lower infant
- mortality than U.S
- •Possible factors include low birth weight
- resulting from a lack of free or inexpensive prenatal care and fewer paid leave
- of absences for pregnant women
What are some of the reflexes that are present at birth?
Rooting and sucking
What is the APGAR, what does it measure, and what does it mean?
Heart rate, skin tone, respiration, muscle tone, reflexes
What are the "states" of an infant?
Alert Inactivity, Waking Activity, Crying, Sleeping
What are the types of cries that infants use to communicate?
•Basic Cry - Starts softly and builds in volume and intensity. Often seen when the child is hungry
•Mad Cry - More intense and louder
•Pain Cry - Starts with a loud wail, followed by a long pause, then gasping
What is a typical birth weight and various atypical weights?
Typical = 7-8 lbs
< 5.5 pounds = low birth weight
< 3.3 pounds = very low birth weight
< 2.2 pounds = extremely low birth weight
What are the component skills involved in learning to walk?
- posture, balance, stepping, coordinating skills
At what age do infants master skills needed to walk?
Do typical infants have acute senses? Smell? Vision? Hearing?
What is the "visual cliff"?
Visual cliff studies show that children as young as 6 weeks react with emotional indicators or interest to differences in depth.
When and how do infants and toddlers become "self aware"?
Between 2 and 5 children develop "theory of the mind"
According to Piaget, how do schemes, assimilation, and accomodation provide the foundation for cognitive development throughout the lifespan?
- Children make sense of the world through
- schemes. Children adapt to their environment as they develop by adding and refining their schemes. Schemes change from physical, to functional, conceptual, and abstract as the child develops.
- required to benefit from experience.
- allows for dealing with completely new data or
What are Piaget's periods of cognitive development?
•Sensorimotor Period (0-2 years) - Infancy
- •Preoperational Period (2-7 years) - Preschool
- and early elementary school
- •Concrete Operational Period (7-11 years) - Middle
- and late elementary school
•Formal Operational Period (11 years & up) –Adolescence and adulthood
What do infants and preschoolers know about numbers?
Quantity, simple addition and subtraction
How should children be treated in preparation for testifying on the witness stand?
- - Should not be questioned repeatedly on an issue
- - Warn them that the interviewers may try to trick them.
- - Interviewers questions should evaluate alternative explanations of what happened and who was involved.
What are the number skills learned by preschoolers?
- one to one principle - only one name for each # counted
- stable order principle - have to be counted in the same order.
- cardinaliity principle - last number name differs from the previous ones
What is the zone of proximal development?
The difference between what children can do with and without help from a more experienced guide. Teachers should attempt to keep students in this zone in order to achieve maximum achievement.
How does the zone of proximal development help explain how children accomplish more when they collaborate with others?
others help children by providing structure, hints, and reminders.
What is private speech and what is it's purpose?
- Children talk to themselves as they go about
- difficult tasks
- Purpose : This speech is not intended for others, but
- for self guidance and regulation
What are the steps to acquiring speech?
- 2 mo - cooing
- 6 mo - babbling
- 8-11 mo - intonation (changes in pitch)
- 1 year - first words (dada)
- 2 years - voacbulary of around a few hundred words
- 6 years - know about 10,000 words
What is "fast mapping"?
- Connecting new words to that which they refer
- helps to infer the meaning of the new word.
What is "telegraphic speech"?
speech used by young children that contains only the words necessary to convey the message
How can parents encourage their child's use of language?
- –Speaking to children frequently
- –Naming objects of children’s attention
- –Using speech that is more grammatically sophisticated
- –Reading to them
- –Encouraging watching television programs with an emphasis on learning new words, such as Sesame Street
What are the steps to effective communication?
1. Taking turns as speaker and listener
2. Making sure to speak in language the listener understands
3. Paying attention while listening and making sure the speaker knows if he/she is being understood.