Parasitology - Nematodes

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Author:
zf2010
ID:
104279
Filename:
Parasitology - Nematodes
Updated:
2011-09-25 21:06:52
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Nematodes
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Description:
Nematodes
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  1. Common name of nematodes
    Roundworms
  2. General look of adult nematodes
    • Smooth
    • Tapered ends
    • Non-pigmented (pale)
  3. Polyparisitism
    • Multiple nematode infections in endemic areas per patient
    • Very common
  4. What lab values are associated with helminth infections?
    • High IgE
    • High Eosinophils
  5. Filariform
    • Nematode has esophagus of uniform caliber throughout
    • Infective
  6. Rhabditiform
    Nematode esophagus is expanded posteriorly into a bulb
  7. Ascaris lumbricoides - Where?
    • Termperate and tropical areas
    • 1/4 of world population infected
  8. Ascaris lumbricoides - Life Cycle?
    • Infective egg containing larva ingested
    • Larva bores into tissues to lungs
    • Matures in lungs --> passed to intestine
    • Adults are sexual reproducers
  9. Ascaris lumbricoides - Presentation?
    • Pneumonitis possible when in lungs
    • Lactose maldigestion
    • Abdominal distention, tenderness
    • Obstructed bowel***
  10. Ascaris lumbricoides - Diagnosis?
    • O&P in stool
  11. Ascaris lumbricoides - Treatment?
    Albendazole or mebendezole
  12. Enterobius vermicularis
    Pinworm
  13. Enterobius vermicularis - Where?
    • Temperate regions mostly
    • Tropics also
  14. Enterobius vermicularis - Life cycle?
    • Egg ingested, hatches in duodenum
    • Lava develops in small intestine
    • Adults live in cecum
    • Female pass out anus to deposit eggs (frequent autoinfection)
  15. Enterobius vermicularis - Presentation?
    • Anal pruritus
    • Usually asymptomatic in GI
  16. Enterobius vermicularis - Diagnosis?
    • O&P of stool
  17. Enterobius vermicularis - Treatment?
    • Tap water enemas
    • Albendazole
  18. Ancyclostoma duodenale
    • Old World Hookworm
  19. Ancyclostoma duodenale - Where?
    36N to 30S
  20. Ancyclostoma duodenale - Life Cycle?
    • Filariform larva penetrates skin
    • Matures in lungs
    • Adults attach in small intestine
    • Eggs passed in feces produce rhabditiform larva
    • Molts in soil to filariform larva
  21. Ancyclostoma duodenale - Presentation?
    • Flatulence and abdominal discomfort
    • Nausea, diarrhea
    • Anemia
  22. Ancyclostoma duodenale - Diagnosis?
    • O&P of stool
  23. Ancyclostoma duodenale - Treatment?
    Albendazole or mebendazole
  24. Necator americanus
    • New World hookworm
  25. Necator americanus - Where?
    Americas, Africa, India, S.E. Asia, Australia
  26. Necator americanus - Life Cycle?
    • Filariform larva penetrates skin
    • Matures in lungs
    • Adults attach in small intestine
    • Eggs passed in feces produce rhabditiform larva
    • Molts in soil to filariform larva
  27. Necator americanus - Presentation?
    • Pruritis at penetration
    • Flatulence, abdominal discomfort
    • Nausea, diarrhea
    • Anemia
  28. Necator americanus - Diagnosis?
    O&P of stool
  29. Necator americanus - Treatment?
    Albendazole or mebendazole
  30. Cutaneous Larva Migrans
    • Intense pruritus and creeping eruption from non-human hookworm penetration of skin
    • Treat with albendazole or oral ivermectin
  31. Strongyloides stercoralis - Where?
    • Worldwide
  32. Strongyloides stercoralis - Life Cycle?
    • Free-living nematode
    • Larva passed in feces
    • Filariform larva penetrate skin --> lungs
    • Adults live in intestinal tract, lay eggs
    • Frequent autoinfection
    • Can infect via breast milk
  33. What differentiates strongyloides from hookworm?
    Stongyloides has shorter buccal cavity
  34. Strongyloides stercoralis - Presentation?
    • Itch at penetration site
    • Pneumonitis
    • Diarrhea, malabsorption
    • Melena
  35. Hyperinfection syndrome
    Strongyloides involving only lungs and GI
  36. Disseminated strongyloidiasis
    Seen in immunocompromised individuals
  37. Strongyloides stercoralis - Diagnosis?
    • Serology
    • Multiple stool O&P
  38. Zoonotic strongyloidiasis
    Creeping eruption of skin penetrating non-human strongyloides
  39. Capillaria philippinensis - Where?
    SE Asia
  40. Capillaria philippinensis - Presentation?
    • Adult worms in jejunum
    • Autoinfection
    • Abdominal pain, gurgling, diarrhea
    • Anasarca
  41. Capillaria philippinensis - Diagnosis?
    Stool O&P
  42. Capillaria philippinensis - Treatment?
    Albendazole or mebendazole
  43. Trichuris trichiura
    • Whipworm
  44. Trichuris trichiura - Where?
    Tropics worldwide
  45. Trichuris trichiura - Life cycle?
    • Infective egg ingested - hatches in intestine
    • Adults attach in cecum
  46. Trichuris trichiura - Presentation?
    • Abdominal pain, distention
    • Bloody or mucoid diarrhea
    • Malabsorption
    • Anemia
    • Appendicitis via blockage
  47. Trichuris trichiura - Diagnosis?
    Football shaped eggs in stool
  48. Trichuris trichiura - Treatment?
    Albendazole or mebendazole
  49. Ivermectin treats?
    Strongyloides and Ascaris
  50. Anisakiasis
    • Infection with larval stages
    • From consumtion of infected fish
    • Treated with albendazole

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