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What is the somatic nerve system?
contains senory (afferent) and motor (efferent) neurons. transmits messages about sights, sounds, smells, tough, temp, etc. to the CNS.
What is the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?
regulates the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.controls things such as heartbeat, resperation, digestion.
What are the Two Branches of the ANS?
the sympatheic and the parasympathetic
What is the parasympathetic branch?
the branch of the AND that is most active during proceeses such as digestion that restore the body's reserves for energy (eg eating)
What is the sympathetic branch?
branch of ANS that is msot active during emotional responses sucha as fear and anxiety. spends the reserves of energy. remember: sympathetic is an emotion.
What are spinal reflexes?
an unlearned response to a stimulus that may involve only two neurons--a sensory and a motor and even sometimes a third neuron called the interneuron
What are interneurons?
they transmit the neural impulse from the sensory neuron to the motor neuron
What is the difference between grey matter and white matter?
- grey matter--composed of nonmyelinated neurons.
- white matter--compused of budles of longer myelinated neurons.
what are the ways researches examine the brain?
- 1. leasioning
- 2.EEG--detects minutes amount of electricity in the brain.
- 3. CAT--xray beams that reflect an image back into a picture from many angles.
- 4.MRI-magnetic fields that cause parts of the brain to emit signals. records changes in blood flow to detect activity.
- 4. PET scan
What is the medulla?
oblong region of the hind brain thats involved with the regulation of heartbeat and respiration
What is the Pons?
bulge in the hindbrain that lies forward of the medulla. A bundle of nerves. transmits info about the body movement and is involved in functions related to attention sleep and a respiration.
What is the cerebellum?
part of the hindbran thats involved in muscle coordination and balance. (drunk tests examine this when police make you walk)
what is the reticular activating system RAS?
part of the brain that is involved in arousal, attention, and sleep. injury to this part of the brain often results in a coma
What is the thalamus?
two egg shaped structures that serves as the relay station for sensory stimulation. carries info from nerve fibers below to the cerebral cortex above.
what is the hypothalamus?
a bundle of nuclei below the thalamus involved in body temp, motivation, and emotion. (huger, thirst, agression) stimulation of hypothalamus causes animals to behave badly RAWR
What is the limbic system?
group of structures involved in memory, motivation, and emotion that forms a fringe along the inner edge of the cerebellum. (50 first dates brain)
what is the amygdala?
near the bottom of the limbic system. looks like 2 almonds. connected to agression. "rage response" when stimulated.
what is the cerebrum?
largest mass of the forebrain tht consists of the two hemispheres.
What is the cerebral cortex?
wrinkled surface ares (gray matter of the cerebrum). fissures=more surface area=more info stored
What is the corpus callosum?
thick fiber bundle that connects the hemisphere of the cortex.
What are the divisions of the hemispheres?
- 1. frontal lobe
- 2. parietal lobe
- 3. temporal lobe
- 4.occipital lobe
What is the somatorsensory cortex?
the section of the cortex in which sensory stimulation is projected.
What is the motor cortex?
section of the cerebral cortex that lies in the frontal love. nerual impulses in the motor cortex are linked to muscular responses throughout the body.
How is the prefrontal cortex involved in thinking?
it retrieves visualm sensory, auditory memories and manipulates them into info that can be used to solve problems or think
What is Wernickes aphasia?
language disorder in which the left hemisphere of the brain is damaged. sufferers have a hard time comprehending the meaning of language
What is Broca's aphasia?
a language disorder characterized by slow....uhhh...laborious...ehh..speech.
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