vet-tech-animal-diseases-ch-1-pansystemic-diseases-part-1

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darlene.m.nelson
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vet-tech-animal-diseases-ch-1-pansystemic-diseases-part-1
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2011-09-25 21:52:37
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vet tech animal diseases chapter pansystemic part set
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vet tech animal diseases chapter 1 pansystemic diseases part 1 set
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  1. Pansystemic disease
    • involve multiple body systems as well as primary target organs
    • most often infectious
    • multiple causes - bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic
  2. Characteristic symptoms of pansystemic disease
    • fever - > 103; may be 1st symptom you see (before other symptoms appear)
    • lethargy - unwilling to participate in normal activities
    • anorexia - decrease in or loss of appetite
    • depression - mental dullness (not sadness like humans); response to stimuli below normal level; just not acting right
    • diabetic/renal failure may have same symptoms, but NO fever
  3. Health
    a state of optimal physical, mental and spiritual well-being. Not just the abscence of disease.
  4. Disease
    • a definite morbid (moving toward death) process having a characteristic train of symptoms
    • it may affect all or part of the body
  5. Epidemiology
    • the study of the various factors and relationships determining the frequency and duration of a disease
    • diagnosing like House
    • eg in Lymes disease, abnormal # kids diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis in one location; commonality was dogs; lead to tick discovery
  6. Pathology
    • the branch of medicine that studies the essential nature of disease
    • the structural and functional changes in tissues and organs
    • eg cancer has a very distinct signature at the cellular/tissue level
  7. Etiology
    • the study of the factors that cause disease:
    • trauma
    • metabolic
    • immune
    • congenital - present at birth
    • genetic - inherited
    • nutritional
    • neoplastic
    • infectious
  8. Infectious causes of disease
    • viral
    • rickettsial
    • mycoplasm
    • ureaplasm
    • bacterial
    • protozoal
    • fungal
  9. Patient evaluation
    • S - subjective
    • O - objective
    • A - Assessment
    • P - Plan
    • this is a standard charting practice
    • most vets document/think this way even if it's not obviously labelled SOAP
    • iterative process
    • if animal stays at vet, should be SOAPed once/twice a day
    • ALWAYS document everything
  10. Subjective evaluation
    • how they appear:
    • B/A - bright/alert
    • Depressed - concious; respond to stimuli, but not in a normal manner
    • Moribund - coucious; inert (usually laterally recumbent); little (?) response to stimuli
    • Coma - not concious; no response to stimuli
    • Dead
    • Excited - don't see as much
  11. Objective evaluation
    • measured quantity, usually has a # associated with it
    • TPR - temperature, pulse, respiration
    • other info as warranted
  12. Assessment
    evaluation of information collected above
  13. Plan
    • further diagnostics or treatment
    • many times vet tech must implement plan
  14. Common pansystemic diseases in all mammmals
    Rabies
  15. Common pansystemic diseases in dogs
    • Core disease vaccines - DHLPP - AVMA recommends every 3 years after puppyhood
    • - Distemper
    • - Adeno viruses 1 and 2
    • - Leptospirosis
    • - Parvo
    • - Parainfluenza
    • Non-core vaccines
    • - Lymes - probably in New England, not in Arizona
    • - Influenza (H3N8)
    • - Corona virus - puppy disease; shelters
    • - Bordatella bronchiseptica - kennel cough; show dogs, boarding, groomers, play groups
    • - Ehrlicia - tick borne; not very good vaccine
  16. Common pansystemic diseases in cats
    • Core disease vaccine - FVRCP - every 3 years after kittenhood
    • - Panleukopenia - feline distemper
    • - Feline Herpes Virus - Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR); upper respiratory infection
    • - Calici virus
    • Non-core vaccines
    • - Feline Leukemia Virus - FeLV
    • - Feline Immunodeficiency Virus - FIV
    • - Feline Infectious Peritonitis - FIP
  17. Rabies
    • etiology - Lyssa virus
    • hosts - all mammals
    • prognosis - grave; once symptoms appear, there is no treatment and death will occur
    • ZOONOTIC - that's why we are so concerned about it
  18. Rabies transmission
    • saliva to blood via bite or open sore most common
    • opne sore in contact with any bodily fluid
    • inhalation of guano (bats) - rare but possible, especially for spelunkers
    • most bats in New England are insectivores
    • any cat w/ abcess of unknown origin is rabies suspect (possibly saliva in it), so you need to wear protection
    • any neurologic symptom in any animal is rabies suspect
  19. Incubation
    period of time from initial infection to presence of clinical signs
  20. Rabies incubation
    • 15-50 days; beyond 50 days in ferrets
    • can be highly variable
    • depends on the location of the bite and the species bitten - bite farther from the brain will take longer than one close to brain
    • if vaccinate during incubation, will just slow the progress of the disease
    • goes from wound to neurons; takes over nucleus; reproduces until cell bursts; goes into another neuron; eventually reaches the brain
  21. Rabies Clinical Signs
    3 stages - prodromal, excitative (furious), paralytic
  22. Rabies prodromal stage
    • changes in behavior
    • eg raccoon comes up to people
    • eg horses, deer, cattle get lethargic, stuporous
  23. Rabies excitative (furious) stage
    • hyperactivity - sudden emotional shifts, eg calm to suddenly attacking
    • stupor (dumb form)
    • usually affect carnivores
    • centers in limbic center of brain
    • abnormal behavior (when reaches brain)
    • - passive, then vicious
    • - irrational
    • - foaming at the mouth - can't swallow
    • - die within 10 days (usually less, 3-8) of it getting to brain, however long it took to get there
    • infectious once it gets to this stage, hence 10 day bite quarantine
    • unvaccinated (including overdue) animal must be quarantined for 180 days as it can take that long to show symptoms and die
  24. Rabies paralytic stage
    ascending paralysis - when it gets to diaphragm, they stop breathing and die
  25. Rabies diagnosis
    • post-mortem - no antemortem test
    • examination of the brain for Negri bodies
    • decapitation, then sent to State Diagnostic lab
    • if suspect late Fri PM, quarantine until Mon (state testing agency won't be there on weekend & brain won't last until Mon)
    • use extreme care - every body fluid can be contagious
  26. Rabies prevention
    • vaccination mandated at both state and federal level
    • dogs and cats in MA:
    • 1st vax at 3-6 months of age (legally must be by 6 months)
    • 2nd booster w/in 9-12 months of the 1st, then next vax in 3 years
    • if miss 9-12 month window, then in 1 year
    • once a 3 year always a 3 year as long as it is kept current
  27. Rabies treatment
    NONE
  28. Canine Distemper
    • etiology - Canine Distemper Virus (CDV)
    • transmission - aerosol droplets (sneezing)
    • prognosis - grave; 90% mortality, usually within a year; can move from tissue to tissue
  29. Canine Distemper clinical signs
    • fever
    • cough
    • mucopurulent discharges (so contagious)
    • pneumonia
    • vomiting (upper GI)
    • diarrhe (lower GI)
    • dehydration (from vomiting and diarrhea)
  30. Sequelae (online definitions)
    • any complication of a disease
    • any abnormal bodily condition or disease related to or arising from a pre-existing disease
    • an aftereffect of disease, condition, or injury
  31. Canine Distemper Sequelae
    • hyperkeratosis
    • clonus seizures
    • muscle twitching - St Vitus' Dance
    • ataxia - lack of muscle control: the inability to coordinate the movements of muscles
    • circling
    • blindness
    • if the above don't happen, then 8-10 years later:
    • old dog encephalitis - circling, pressing head against wall (to relieve headache pain)
  32. Canine Distemper treatment
    • no treatment, just:
    • supportive care
    • - good nursing - clean, quiet, dark (photophobia), soft
    • - fluids - to maintain hydration
    • - prevent secndary bacterial infections - damaging to epithelium so prone to bacterial infections - prophylactic antibiotics
  33. Canine Distemper sequelae
    • short term - usually 3-6 weeks
    • - chorea (St Vitus dance)
    • - seizures - not controllable - will get more intense until it kills them
    • long term - years later - virus can lay dormant in system for years
    • - old dog encephalitis
    • -- ataxia - staggering like drunk
    • -- head pressing - to relieve headache
    • - hypermetria - don't know where feet are (lift them really high)
    • - seizures
  34. Canine Distemper
    • prevention
    • good hygiene - readily killed with common disinfectants (even soap & water or any disinfecting spray)
    • vaccination - modified live vaccine; puppies starting at 8 weeks then monthly until 16 weeks; adults w/o vax get initial dose then 2nd dose a month later
  35. Natural Resevoirs
    • wild populations that harbor diseases that can affect domestic animals and humans
    • important in a number of pansystemic diseases in dogs and cats - eg rabies, dog and cat distemper (sunlight kills them all very well - hot, dry)
    • common natural resevoirs include raccoons, skunks, ground hogs, bats, coyotes, feral cats
  36. Raccoon importance as natural resevoir
    • evolutionary combo of cats and dogs
    • highly adaptive - urban and rural
    • usually nocturnal so you may not know they are in your neighborhood
    • leave behind sneeze droplets on everything, animate or inanimate; inanimate in the shade tends to hold contagions longer
  37. Diseases with natural resevoirs
    • rabies
    • canine distemper
    • feline distemper
    • parvo
    • leptospirosis
    • lymes
    • ehrlichia
    • also Giardia, although not an infectious disease
  38. Infectious
    caused by a microorganism
  39. Contagious
    • spreads readily from one animal to another
    • infectious, but poorly contagious - AIDS, feline leukemia
    • infectious & highly contagious - canine distemper, kennel cough
  40. Isolation protocols
    • separate area (for each disease) - leave animals in car until ready to put in a room
    • - can be iso ward, heated garage, bathroom - anything away from other animals
    • - remember to keep an eye on them; they are very sick, but easy to forget
    • separate equipment
    • - footbaths - parvo walked around the world in 6 days
    • - dedicated caregivers - preferably someone who won't bring it home to their pets
    • - protective clothing
    • - dedicated to ward
    • -- stethoscope
    • -- clippers, etc
    • - sink
    • - drain in floor separate from drainage to rest of hospital
    • preferably easy to get in and out without bringing sick animal all the way through the clinic

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