Paraistology - Blood/Tissue Nematodes

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zf2010
ID:
104306
Filename:
Paraistology - Blood/Tissue Nematodes
Updated:
2011-09-26 02:13:44
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Blood Tissue Nematodes
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Blood Tissue Nematodes
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  1. What do filariae inhabit?
    • Lymphatic system
    • Connective tissues
  2. Lymphatic filariases caused by...
    • Wuchereria bancrofti
    • Brugia malayi
    • Brugia timori
  3. Wuchereria bancrofti - Where?
    Worldwide tropics and subtropics
  4. Wuchereria bancrofti - Life Cycle?
    • Infected mosquite deposits infective larva
    • Larva develops in lymphatics
    • Adults live in lymph nodes
    • Worm-like eggs (microfilariae) circulate in bloodstream
  5. Wuchereria bancrofti - Diagnosis?
    Blood smear - microfilariae in blood
  6. Wuchereria bancrofti - Presentation?
    • Fever, lymphangitis, lymphadenitis
    • Common to limbs, breast, scrotum
    • Edema
    • Elephantiasis
  7. Wuchereria bancrofti - Treatment?
    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) AND Ivermectin
  8. Loa loa
    African eye worm
  9. Loa loa - Where?
    Africa
  10. Loa loa - Life cycle?
    • Infective larva penetrates at mango fly (vector) bite
    • Larva mature in subcutaneous tissue
    • Produce microfilariae (in circulation)
  11. Loa loa - Presentation?
    • Painful when pass over bridge of nose or through conjuctiva (can be excised here)
    • Calabar swellings
  12. Loa loa - Diagnosis?
    • Filarial antibody
    • Microfilariae in blood
  13. Loa loa - Treatment?
    • Surgical removal
    • Diethylcarbamazine (DEC)
    • Ivermectin
  14. Onchocerca vovulus - Where?
    Africa, S. America, Middle East
  15. Onchocerca vovulus - Life cycle?
    • Blackfly vector - bite with infective larva
    • Develops in subcutaneous tissue
    • Females live in subcutaneous nodules
    • Microfilaria in skin, not blood
  16. Onchocerca vovulus - Presentation?
    • Subcutaneous nodules
    • Onchodermatitis, subcutaneous thickening
    • Pruritis
    • Hanging groin
    • Eye lesions
    • Intrauterine transmission
  17. Onchocerca vovulus - Diagnosis?
    Microfilariae in skin
  18. Onchocerca vovulus - Treatment?
    • Diethylcarbamizine
    • Ivermectin
  19. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia
    • Hypereosinophilia, cough, wheezing
    • No microfilariae in blood, found in lung biopsy
    • Treat with DEC
  20. Dracunculus medinensis
    Guinea Worm
  21. Dracunculus medinensis - Where?
    Africa, Middle East, India
  22. Dracunculus medinensis - Life Cycle?
    • Larva ingested by copepod
    • Develops to filariform larva, leaves copepod
    • Ingested via drinking contaminated water
    • Adult worm in subcutaneous tissue
    • Larva liberated from skin lesions
  23. Dracunculus medinensis - Diagnosis?
    • Development of characteristic lesion
    • Can obtain larva from ulcer
  24. Dracunculus medinensis - Presentation?
    • Worms usually on legs or feet
    • Pruritus, neausea, allergic symptoms
    • Ulcer above female worm, discharge of larvae
    • Removal of worms extremely painful
  25. Dracunculus medinensis - Treatment?
    • Surgical removal or worms
    • No effective treatment - but metronidazole facilitates removal
    • Mebendazole may kill worm
  26. Trichinellosis - Where?
    • Worldwide
    • Arctic and subarctic zones
  27. Trichinellosis - Life cycle?
    • Ingested larva via uncooked pork
    • Adults in wall of small intestine
    • New larvae encyst in skeletal muscle
  28. Trichinellosis - Presentation?
    • Nonspecific gastroenteritis
    • Fever and eosinophilia
    • Circumorbital edema***
  29. Trichinellosis - Diagnosis?
    • Serology
    • Muscle biopsy
  30. Trichinellosis - Treatment?
    • Albendazole or mebendazole
    • Corticosteroids for symptamatic cases
  31. Angiostrongylus cantonensis
    Rat lungworm
  32. Angiostrongylus cantonensis - Where?
    Tropics and subtropics
  33. Angiostrongylus cantonensis - Life cycle?
    • Ingestion of larva
    • Cannot complete life cycle in humans - larva carried to meninges but cannot leave to migrate to lungs
  34. Angiostrongylus cantonensis - Presentation?
    • Abrupt onset meningoencephalitis
    • Nausea, vomiting, fever
    • Eve invasion with visual impairment
  35. Angiostrongylus cantonensis - Treatment?
    Mebendazole
  36. Toxocariasis - How do you get it?
    Ingestion of dog or cat ascaris eggs
  37. Toxocariasis - Presentation?
    • Larva leave intestine, go to liver, spleen, lungs, brain, eye
    • Hepatosplenomegaly, pneumonia
  38. Toxocariasis - Treatment?
    Albendazole

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