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  1. adrenergic receptors
    • alpha 1
    • alpha 2
    • beta 1
    • beta 2
  2. alpha 1 causes ___
  3. beta 1 causes ___
    increase of heart rate
  4. beta 2 causes ___
  5. Cell membrane is made up of:
    • phospholipids
    • cholesterol
    • proteins
  6. types of membrane transport
    • passive - facilitated diffusion, simple diffusion, etc.
    • active - primary, secondary
  7. types of cell communication
    • intercellular signaling
    • intracellular signaling
  8. types of intercellular signaling
    • cell-to-cell/direct
    • autocrine
    • paracrine
    • nervouse/synaptic
    • endocrine
  9. cell-to-cell/direct signaling...
    • the fastest type of intercellular signaling
    • gap junctions- channels connect 2 cells together & ions go through
    • ex: heart gap junctions- heart can contract all at same time
  10. autocrine
    • signaling to yourself
    • occurs in conjunction with paracrin
    • --> localized effect
  11. paracrine
    • signals with neighboring cells
    • occurs almost everywhere

    ex. capillary beds
  12. nervous/synaptic
    • neural signaling
    • in neuron, in a gland...occurs very quickly
  13. endocrine

    • signaling mol are hormones
    • (secreted directly to bldstrm to find target cell. travels as far as bldstrm takes it)

    ex. hypothalamus & pituitary- neurons secrete ADH into bld in pituitary- goes into bldstrm
  14. type of intracellular signaling
  15. ligand
    • aka chemical messenger or 1st messenger
    • extracellular mol that binds receptor
    • --> can activate or inhibit intracell. signaling
  16. types of ligand intracell. signaling
    • endogenous- produced by body
    • (ex. hormones, paracrine factors, etc.)

    • exogenous- administered to body
    • (ex. drugs, toxins)
  17. Ligand activity
    ability of ligand to initiate a cellular effect
  18. Ligand activity
    most are agonists!

    • ligand that has both receptor affinity & efficacy
    • (binds to receptor and initiates cell effect)

  19. Ligand activity
    ligand has receptor affinity but no efficacy

    (blocks access of agonist- competitive antagonist)

  20. competitive antagonist
    if antagonist binding to receptor, agonist can't bind- so competing for that spot!
  21. receptor
    • located on CM or intracell. mol
    • binds ligand
    • modifies signal transduction pathway (turns on/off)
  22. signal transduction pathway
    aka intracellular signaling
    second messenger system
    • activates cascade of intracell. signaling
    • molecular chain of events- mods cell activity
  23. signal transduction pathway
    kinases- phosphorylates

    phosphotases- dephosphorylates
  24. signal transduction pathway
    modifications from chain of events
    • opening ion channels
    • initiating gene transcription
    • translation
    • protein synthesis
    • secretion of proteins
  25. alterations of effector proteins
    metabolic enzymes
    altered metabolism
  26. alterations of effector proteins
    gene regulatory expression
    altered gene expression
  27. alterations of effector proteins
    cytoskeletal protein
    altered cell shape or movement
  28. result of signal transduction pathway
    • altering enzyme activity
    • regulation of genes, transcription
    • protein production
    • altering something inside cytosk. protein
    • change shape or ability or mvmt of cell
  29. receptor regulation by ligands
    due to continuous or repeated exposure of ligand (or drug) to receptor
  30. types of densensitization
    • receptor sequestration
    • receptor down-regulation
    • receptor inactivation
    • inactivation of signaling protein
    • production of inhibitory protein
  31. receptor sequestration
    if not as many receptors on cell surface then not much activity
  32. receptor down-regulation
    • decrease gene transcription of receptor, so cells make less of that receptor
    • due to prolonged increased levels of ligand signaling
  33. receptor inactivation
    • turns off!
    • receptors get phosphorylated
  34. inactivation of signaling protein
    • turns off!
    • something binds to receptor but signal is turned off
  35. production of inhibitory protein
    • signaling causes synthesis of some kind of protein that inhibits signal
    • similar to neg. fdbck
  36. receptor regulation by ligands
    • increased gene transcription of receptor
    • due to prolonged decreased levels of ligand
  37. is activation of receptor leading to down-regulation?

    • OVERactivation does (or underactivation)
    • form of negative feedbk
  38. intracell. signaling
    Receptor classes
    • cell membrane receptors
    • intracellular receptors
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