refers to an individual's unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits
We use what in terms of describing specific aspects of personality?
a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
What uses the vast majority of personality traits derive from just a five higher order traits that have come to be known as what?
The five factor Model of Personality
What are the "Big Five"?
extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
People who score high in this are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious
People who score high in this tend to be anxious, hostile, self-concious, insecure, and vulnerable
This is associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes
openness to experience
those who score high in this tend to be sympathetic, trusting,, cooperative, modest, and straight-forward
these type of people tend to be diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual, and dependable
This include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconcious mental forces
Who were two of Freud's most significant followers?
Carl Jung and Alfred Adler
Who is one of the most influential and controversial figures of modern time who started as a physician specializing in neurology?
Freud treated people with nervous problems such as irrational fears, obsessions and anxieties that he treated using an innovative procedure that required lengthy verbal interactions that probed deeply into his patients lives. What was this procedure called?
What are the three reasons most were uncomfortable with Freud's theories?
1. he argued that unconscious forces govern human behavior(meaning people were not masters of their own mind)
2. he claimed that childhood experiences strongly determine adult personality(meaning people are not masters of their own destiny)
3. he said that individuals' personalities are shaped by how they coped with their sexual urges(offended conservative people)
What did 3 categories did Freud divide personality structure into?
the id, the ego, and the superego
the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle
what does the id operate according to?
what engages in the primary process thinking and houses the raw biological urges(to eat, sleep, defecate, copulate, etc) that energize human behavior?
What process of thinking is primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented
the primary process thinking
This demands immediate gratification of its urges?
the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle
This mediates between the need for immediate satisfaction and the external worlds of its expectations and norms of suitable behavior. Therefore it considers the social realities in deciding how to behave.
seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
this process of thinking is relatively rational, realistic, and oriented toward problem solving
secondary process thinking
the oral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
according to Freud, the id, ego, and superego are distributed across 3 levels of awareness?
conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved
contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on one's behavior
What did Freud believe dominated people's lives?
Freud also believed that conflicts centering on sexual and aggression impulses are especially likely yo have far-reaching consequences. why did he emphasize sex and aggression?
1. he thought that sec and aggression were subject to more complex and ambiguous social controls than other basic motives.
2. he noted that sexual and aggressive drives are thwarted more regularly than other basic biological urges
are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from painful emotions such as anxiety and guilt
involves creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior(ex: reduction of guilt with saying "everyone does it")
involves keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious(aka "motivated forgetting")
involves attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
involves diverting emotional feelings(usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target
involves behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of one's true feelings
involves a reversion to immature patterns of behavior
What are Freud's 5 pyschosexual stages?
oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital
-1st yr of life
-main source of stimulation is the mouth
-2nd yr of life
-children get their erotic pleasure from their bowel movements
-crucial event during this stage: potty training
-around age 4
-focus of child's erotic energy through self-stimulation
-emergence of Oedipal complex(tinged desire for other sex parent and hostility toward same sex parent)
latency and genital stages?
-age 6 through puberty
-center on expanding social contacts beyond family(latent)
-sexual urges reappear and focus on genitals, but sexual energy is channeled towards someone of the opposite sex(genital)
What is Carl Jung known for?
Jung emphasized the unconscious determinants of personality and that the unconscious consists of 2 layers, which are what?
1. personal unconscious
2. collective unconscious
same as Freud's version, it houses material from one's life that is not within one's conscious awareness bc it has been repressed or forgotten
storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past that is shared with the entire human race
ancestral memories; emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
What did Jung first describe that eventually became central to most trait theories of personality?
the personality dimension of extraversion-introversion
What is Alfred Adler known for?
Adler argued that the foremost human drive is not sexuality, but what?
striving for superiority, because early inferiority feelings motivate individuals to acquire new skills and develop new talents
involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities
exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy
when someone flaunts their successes in order to cover up their inferiority complex
3 criticisms of psychodynamic approach
-sexism(bias agst women)
a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behavior
What is Ivan Pavlov known for?
type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires that capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
What did Pavlov originally begin studying?
The digestive system in dogs
a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
previous neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response through conditioning
a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
You studying response is mainly influenced by events that follows it known as?
Who was the study of operant conditioning led by?
a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
occurs when a response is strengthened( increases in frequency) bc it is followed by the arrival of a pleasant stimulus
positive reinforcement(almost synonymous with the concept of reward)
Occurs when a response is strengthened(increases in frequency) bc it is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
occurs when a response is weakened(decreases in frequency) bc it is followed by the arrival of an unpleasant stimulus
What is Albert Bandura known for?
Social Cognitive theory
occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, esp their free will and their potential for personal growth
Who are the 2 most influential humanistic theorists?
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
one of the founders of the human potential movement, which emphasizes personal growth through sensitivity training, encounter groups, and other exercises intended to help people get in touch with their true selves(Person-centered theory)
collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
refers to the disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience
person's self concept is reasonably accurate is said to be what?
Who is known for the theory of self-actualization?
a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
hierarchy of needs
the need to fulfill one's potential
need for self-actualization
What did Hans Eysenck theorize?
that some people can be conditioned more readily than others bc of inherited differences in physiological functioning
when researchers assess hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins on a trait
an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance
examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one's well being and thereby tax one's coping abilities
initial evaluation of whether an event is irrelevant to you, relevant but not threatening, or stressful
an evaluation of your coping resources and options for dealing with the stress
consists of chronic environmental conditions that although not urgent are negatively valued and that place adaptive demands on people
threatening events that have relatively short duration and a clear endpoint
threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit
occurs in any situation in which pursuit of some goal is thwarted
occurs when 2 or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression