Snows Test one

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  1. refers to an individual's unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits
  2. We use what in terms of describing specific aspects of personality?
  3. a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
    personality trait
  4. What uses the vast majority of personality traits derive from just a five higher order traits that have come to be known as what?
    The five factor Model of Personality
  5. What are the "Big Five"?
    extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
  6. People who score high in this are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious
  7. People who score high in this tend to be anxious, hostile, self-concious, insecure, and vulnerable
  8. This is associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes
    openness to experience
  9. those who score high in this tend to be sympathetic, trusting,, cooperative, modest, and straight-forward
  10. these type of people tend to be diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual, and dependable
  11. This include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconcious mental forces
  12. Who were two of Freud's most significant followers?
    Carl Jung and Alfred Adler
  13. Who is one of the most influential and controversial figures of modern time who started as a physician specializing in neurology?
    Sigmund Freud
  14. Freud treated people with nervous problems such as irrational fears, obsessions and anxieties that he treated using an innovative procedure that required lengthy verbal interactions that probed deeply into his patients lives. What was this procedure called?
  15. What are the three reasons most were uncomfortable with Freud's theories?
    • 1. he argued that unconscious forces govern human behavior(meaning people were not masters of their own mind)
    • 2. he claimed that childhood experiences strongly determine adult personality(meaning people are not masters of their own destiny)
    • 3. he said that individuals' personalities are shaped by how they coped with their sexual urges(offended conservative people)
  16. What did 3 categories did Freud divide personality structure into?
    the id, the ego, and the superego
  17. the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle
    the id
  18. what does the id operate according to?
    pleasure principle
  19. what engages in the primary process thinking and houses the raw biological urges(to eat, sleep, defecate, copulate, etc) that energize human behavior?
    the id
  20. What process of thinking is primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented
    the primary process thinking
  21. This demands immediate gratification of its urges?
    pleasure principle
  22. the decision making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle
    the ego
  23. This mediates between the need for immediate satisfaction and the external worlds of its expectations and norms of suitable behavior. Therefore it considers the social realities in deciding how to behave.
    the ego
  24. seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
    reality principle
  25. this process of thinking is relatively rational, realistic, and oriented toward problem solving
    secondary process thinking
  26. the oral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
  27. according to Freud, the id, ego, and superego are distributed across 3 levels of awareness?
    conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
  28. consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
  29. contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved
  30. contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on one's behavior
  31. What did Freud believe dominated people's lives?
  32. Freud also believed that conflicts centering on sexual and aggression impulses are especially likely yo have far-reaching consequences. why did he emphasize sex and aggression?
    • 1. he thought that sec and aggression were subject to more complex and ambiguous social controls than other basic motives.
    • 2. he noted that sexual and aggressive drives are thwarted more regularly than other basic biological urges
  33. are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from painful emotions such as anxiety and guilt
    defense mechanisms
  34. involves creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior(ex: reduction of guilt with saying "everyone does it")
  35. involves keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious(aka "motivated forgetting")
  36. involves attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
  37. involves diverting emotional feelings(usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target
  38. involves behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of one's true feelings
    reaction formation
  39. involves a reversion to immature patterns of behavior
  40. What are Freud's 5 pyschosexual stages?
    oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital
  41. oral stage?
    • -1st yr of life
    • -main source of stimulation is the mouth
  42. anal stage?
    • -2nd yr of life
    • -children get their erotic pleasure from their bowel movements
    • -crucial event during this stage: potty training
  43. phallic stage?
    • -around age 4
    • -focus of child's erotic energy through self-stimulation
    • -emergence of Oedipal complex(tinged desire for other sex parent and hostility toward same sex parent)
  44. latency and genital stages?
    • -age 6 through puberty
    • -center on expanding social contacts beyond family(latent)
    • -sexual urges reappear and focus on genitals, but sexual energy is channeled towards someone of the opposite sex(genital)
  45. What is Carl Jung known for?
    analytical psychology
  46. Jung emphasized the unconscious determinants of personality and that the unconscious consists of 2 layers, which are what?
    • 1. personal unconscious
    • 2. collective unconscious
  47. same as Freud's version, it houses material from one's life that is not within one's conscious awareness bc it has been repressed or forgotten
    personal unconscious
  48. storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past that is shared with the entire human race
    collective unconscious
  49. ancestral memories; emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
  50. What did Jung first describe that eventually became central to most trait theories of personality?
    the personality dimension of extraversion-introversion
  51. What is Alfred Adler known for?
    individual psychology
  52. Adler argued that the foremost human drive is not sexuality, but what?
    striving for superiority, because early inferiority feelings motivate individuals to acquire new skills and develop new talents
  53. involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities
  54. exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy
    inferiority complex
  55. when someone flaunts their successes in order to cover up their inferiority complex
  56. 3 criticisms of psychodynamic approach
    • -poor testability
    • -inadequate evidence
    • -sexism(bias agst women)
  57. a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behavior
  58. What is Ivan Pavlov known for?
    classical conditioning
  59. type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires that capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
    classical conditioning
  60. What did Pavlov originally begin studying?
    The digestive system in dogs
  61. a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
    unconditioned stimulus
  62. an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning
    unconditioned response
  63. previous neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response through conditioning
    conditioned stimulus
  64. a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
    conditioned response
  65. You studying response is mainly influenced by events that follows it known as?
  66. Who was the study of operant conditioning led by?
    B.F. Skinner
  67. a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
    operant conditioning
  68. occurs when a response is strengthened( increases in frequency) bc it is followed by the arrival of a pleasant stimulus
    positive reinforcement(almost synonymous with the concept of reward)
  69. Occurs when a response is strengthened(increases in frequency) bc it is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
    negative reinforcement
  70. occurs when a response is weakened(decreases in frequency) bc it is followed by the arrival of an unpleasant stimulus
  71. What is Albert Bandura known for?
    Social Cognitive theory
  72. occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
    observational learning
  73. theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, esp their free will and their potential for personal growth
  74. Who are the 2 most influential humanistic theorists?
    Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
  75. one of the founders of the human potential movement, which emphasizes personal growth through sensitivity training, encounter groups, and other exercises intended to help people get in touch with their true selves(Person-centered theory)
    Carl Rogers
  76. collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
  77. refers to the disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience
  78. person's self concept is reasonably accurate is said to be what?
  79. Who is known for the theory of self-actualization?
    Abraham Maslow
  80. a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
    hierarchy of needs
  81. the need to fulfill one's potential
    need for self-actualization
  82. What did Hans Eysenck theorize?
    that some people can be conditioned more readily than others bc of inherited differences in physiological functioning
  83. when researchers assess hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins on a trait
    twin studies
  84. an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance
    heritability ratio
  85. examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
    evolutionary psychology
  86. any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one's well being and thereby tax one's coping abilities
  87. initial evaluation of whether an event is irrelevant to you, relevant but not threatening, or stressful
    primary apprasial
  88. an evaluation of your coping resources and options for dealing with the stress
    secondary appraisal
  89. consists of chronic environmental conditions that although not urgent are negatively valued and that place adaptive demands on people
    ambient stress
  90. threatening events that have relatively short duration and a clear endpoint
    acute stressors
  91. threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit
    chronic stressors
  92. occurs in any situation in which pursuit of some goal is thwarted
  93. occurs when 2 or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression
  94. What are the 3 types conflict?
    approach-approach, aviodance-aviodance, approach-aviodance
  95. a choice must be made between 2 attractive goals
    approach-approach conflict
  96. a choice must be made between 2 unattractive goals
    aviodance-aviodance conflict
  97. choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects
    approach-aviodance conflict
  98. involves expectations that one behave in a certain way
  99. powerful, largely uncontrollable feelings, accompanied by physiological changes
  100. physiological reaction to threat that mobilizes an organism for attacking or fleeing an enemy
    fight or flight response
  101. made up of the nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands
    Autonomic nervous system(ANS)
  102. 2 divisions of the ANS
    Parasympathetic and sympathetic
  103. refers to active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress
  104. Martin Seligman developed a model of?
    giving up syndrome
  105. passive behavior produced by exposure to unaviodable aversive events
    learned helplessness
  106. any behavior intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally
  107. refers to this release of emotional tension
  108. are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
    defense mechanisms
  109. refer to efforts to deal with stressful events that are judged to be relatively healthful
    constructive coping
  110. what makes coping strategy constructive?
    • 1. the confronting of problems directly
    • 2. that it is based on reasonably realistic appraisals of your stress and coping resources
    • 3. involves learning to recognize and manage potentially disruptive emotional reactions to stress
    • 4. learning to exert some control over potentially harmful or destructive habitual behaviors
  111. 3 broad categories of constructive coping techniques
    appraisal focused, problem focusing, emotion focused
  112. aimed at changing one's interpretations of stressful events
    appraisal focused coping
  113. aimed at altering the stressful situation itself
    problem focused coping
  114. aimed at managing potential emotional distress
    emotion focused coping
  115. involves unrealistic appraisals of stress that exaggerate the magnitude of one's problems
    catastrophic thinking
  116. Who is known for his insight on rational thinking?
    Albert Ellis
  117. What Albert Ellis uses to explain his ideas?
    ABC sequence
  118. ABC sequence?
    • -activating event
    • -belief system
    • - consequence
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Snows Test one
Snows first test
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