Biolgy II

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Biolgy II
2011-09-25 23:25:35

Evolution and Genetic Diseases
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  1. What is life?
    • Organisms have stragegies that attempt to maximize statistical probablities.
    • 1. Reproduction--> More important
    • 2. Life Span--> Less important
    • Better to reproduce more and live shorter
  2. Inclusive Fitness
    • Sum of number of successful genes passed on in offspring and kin, benefiting the individuals gene pool.
    • Measured scientifically by grandoffspring.
  3. Altruism
    • Benefiting recipient at cost of giver (minor or major)
    • No true altruism
    • Anytime you do something for someone else you expect something back.
    • Tit-for-Tat--> I'll help you, you help me
    • Adam Smith- "it is not for the genorosity of the butcher or the baker that we get our dinner"
  4. What good are organisms?
    Life support system for DNA
  5. Genetic Diseases
    • Autosomal Recessive
    • Autosomal Dominant
    • Sex-linked Genetic
    • Aneuploid
  6. Autosomal Recessive Diseases
    • Autosomal--> chromosomes 1-22 (not sex chrom.) 2 bad copies from parents; both recessive alleles
    • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    • Tay-Sachs Disease
    • Sickle Cell Anemia
  7. Autosomal Dominant Diseases
    • Deposit in the brain
    • One allele is present, you have disease
    • Huntington's Disease
    • Marfan Syndrome
  8. Sex-linked Genetic Diseases
    • Rarely female disease
    • Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy
    • Hemophilia
  9. Aneuploid Diseases
    • Diseases caused by Abnormal Chromosomal Number
    • Euploid--> true sets of chromosomes
    • Aneuploid--> w/o true sets of chromosomes
  10. Sex Chromosome Aneuploids
    • Turner Syndrome
    • Klinefelter Syndrome
  11. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
    • Symptoms--> Small heads, Epilepsy, Mental retardation, Musty odor, Light skin and hair color (due to tyrosine deficiency)
    • Incidence and Testing--> 1 in 10,000 Caucasian births, Newborns tested for high phenylalanine levels, Further diagnoses are performed if these high levels are found
    • Cause--> Phenylalanine levels increase because not properly metabolized (cannot be broken down into tyrosine), High levles build up in neurons of the CNS, causing retardation (Amino acid deposits in the brain).