Organisms have stragegies that attempt to maximize statistical probablities.
1. Reproduction--> More important
2. Life Span--> Less important
Better to reproduce more and live shorter
Sum of number of successful genes passed on in offspring and kin, benefiting the individuals gene pool.
Measured scientifically by grandoffspring.
Benefiting recipient at cost of giver (minor or major)
No true altruism
Anytime you do something for someone else you expect something back.
Tit-for-Tat--> I'll help you, you help me
Adam Smith- "it is not for the genorosity of the butcher or the baker that we get our dinner"
What good are organisms?
Life support system for DNA
Autosomal Recessive Diseases
Autosomal--> chromosomes 1-22 (not sex chrom.) 2 bad copies from parents; both recessive alleles
Sickle Cell Anemia
Autosomal Dominant Diseases
Deposit in the brain
One allele is present, you have disease
Sex-linked Genetic Diseases
Rarely female disease
Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy
Diseases caused by Abnormal Chromosomal Number
Euploid--> true sets of chromosomes
Aneuploid--> w/o true sets of chromosomes
Sex Chromosome Aneuploids
Symptoms--> Small heads, Epilepsy, Mental retardation, Musty odor, Light skin and hair color (due to tyrosine deficiency)
Incidence and Testing--> 1 in 10,000 Caucasian births, Newborns tested for high phenylalanine levels, Further diagnoses are performed if these high levels are found
Cause--> Phenylalanine levels increase because not properly metabolized (cannot be broken down into tyrosine), High levles build up in neurons of the CNS, causing retardation (Amino acid deposits in the brain).