test review

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LGHmedic2012
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104334
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test review
Updated:
2011-09-25 23:43:50
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paramedic
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test review for 9/26
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  1. What are the 3 layers of Skin?
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous
  2. Sebum
    fatty secretion of the sebaceous gland that helps keep the skin pliable and waterproof
  3. Hematopoietic System components
    • Bone Marrow
    • Liver
    • Spleen
    • Kidneys
    • Blood
  4. White Blood Cell Blast
    • Myeloblasts
    • Monoblasts
    • Lymphoblasts
  5. White Blood Cell Categories
    • Granulocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  6. Granulocytes
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Neutrophils
  7. Fibrinolysis
    the process through which plasmin dismantles a blood clot
  8. Types of Joints
    • Synarthroses- immovable
    • Amphiarthroses- very limited movement
    • Diarthroses- free movement( monaxial, biaxial, triaxial
  9. Ligaments
    connects bone to bone
  10. Origin
    attachment of a muscle to a bone that does not move
  11. insertion
    attachment of a muscle to a bone that moves when the muscle contracts
  12. Divisions of the Spinal Column
    • Cervical-7
    • Thoracic- 12
    • Lumbar- 5
    • Sacral- 5
    • Coccygeal- 3 to 5
  13. C-1
    Atlas- permits nodding
  14. C-2
    Axis- side to side
  15. Meninges
    • Dura mater (outer most layer)
    • Arachnoid (middle web like layer)
    • Pia mater (bottom layer)
  16. Where does the Spinal Cord Stop?
    L1 or L2
  17. Ribs
    • 12 pair
    • First 7 connect the sternum
    • 8-10 connect to number 7
    • 11, 12 free floating
  18. Lungs
    • Right lung has 3 lobes
    • left has 2
  19. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Consist of the brain and Spinal Cord
  20. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    Comprised of the crainial nerves and the peripheral neves
  21. PNS is divided into?
    • Somatic nervous system- we control
    • Autonomic Nervous System - involuntary
  22. Autonomic nervous system divided into?
    • Parasympathetic- Feed or Breed
    • Sympathetiic- Fight or Flight
  23. Parts of a neuron
    • Dendrites
    • Soma
    • Axon
    • Synaptic Terminals
  24. Charge of a neuron
    In resting state positive on the outside and negitive on the inside
  25. Cerebrum
    • two hemispheres joined by the corpus callosum
    • governs all sensory and motor actions
    • the seat of intelligences, learning, analysis, memory and lenguage
  26. Diencephalon
    • sometimes called the interbrain
    • Inside it are the: thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the limbic system
  27. Thalamus
    Relay and processing centers for sensory information
  28. Hypothalamus
    Centers controlling smotions, autonomic functions, and hormone production
  29. Midbrain
    • processing of visual and auditory data
    • generation of incoluntary somatic motor response
    • maintenance of consciousness
  30. Pons
    • Relays sensory information to cerebellum and thalamus
    • Involuntary somatic and visceral motor centers
  31. Medulla Oblongata
    • Relays sensory information to the thalamus
    • Autonomic centers for regulation of visceral function (cardiocascular, respiratory, and digestive system)
  32. cerebellum
    coordinates fine motor movement, posture, equilibrium, and muscle tone
  33. circle of willis
    brain recieves about 20% of body's total blood flow. Both the carotid system and vertebrobasilar system join at this point
  34. Gray matter
    areas in the CNS dominated by nerve cell bodies, center of spinal cord and plays an important role in the reflex system
  35. White matter
    material that surrounds gray matter in the spinal cord made up largely of axons
  36. How many pairs of spinal nerve roots?
    31
  37. Spinal Nerve Plexuses
    • Cervical- controls the diaphragm
    • Brachial- controls muscles
    • Lumbar- lower abdomen, glutes, thighs
    • Sacral- Lower extremity
  38. Dermatome
    topographical region of the body surface innervated by one nerve root
  39. myotome
    muscle and tissue of the body innervated by a spinal nerve root
  40. 4 Peripheral Nervous System
    • Somatic Sensory- nerves transmit sensations involved in touch, pressure, pain, temp., and position
    • Somatic motor- these efferent fibers carry impulses to the skeletal muscles
    • Visceral sensory- these afferent tracts transmit sensations from visceral organs. such as a full bladder
    • Visceral motor- these efferent fibers exit the CNS and branch to supply nerves to the involuntary cardiac muscle and smooth muscle
  41. Sympathetic hormones
    • Epinephrine(80%)
    • Norepinephrine(20%)
  42. Sympathetic receptors
    • Adrenergic
    • Alpha 1- peripheral vasoconstriction, mild bronchoconstriction, and stimulation of metaabolism
    • Alpha 2- serve to prevent overrelease of norepinephrine in the synapse
    • Beta 1- cause increase heart rate, cardiac contractile force, and cardiac automaticity and conduction
    • Beta 2- cause vasodilation and bronchodilation
    • Dopaminergic- cause dilation of the renal, coronary and cerebral arteries
  43. Parasympathetic nerve fibers travel along what 4 crainial nerves?
    3, 7, 9, 10
  44. Parasympathetic hormone
    Acetylcholine
  45. Parasympathetic two types of ACh
    • Nicotinic(n)- found in all autonomic ganglia, where ACh serves as the presynpatic neurotransmitter of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic
    • Nicotinic(m)- found at the neuromuscular junction and initiate muscular contraction as part of the somatic nervous system
    • Muscarinic- found in many organs throughout the body and are primarily responsible for promoting the parasympathetic response
  46. Hypothalamus
    • Hypothalamus cells act both as nerve cells and gland cells
    • Nerve impulses travel to the posterior pituitart gland
    • Horomones travel to the anterior pituitart gland
  47. Hypothalmus hormones
    • Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)
    • Growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
    • Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
    • Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
    • Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
    • Prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
    • Prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH)

    *All target the anterior pitutitary*
  48. Posterior Pituitary
    Respondes to nerve impluses from hypothalamus
  49. Antidiuretic hormone- kidneys (water absorbson)
    Oxytocin- uterus and breast of females
  50. Anterior Pituitary
    Responds to hormones

    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)- Targets the adrenal cortexes
    • Thyroide-stimulating hormone (TSH)- targets the thyroide
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)- targets gonads
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)- targets gonads
    • Prolactin (PRL)- target the mammary glads in women
    • Growth Hormone (GH)- targets almost all body cells
  51. Thyroid
    two lobes one on either side of trachea

    • Thyroxine(T4)- stimulate cell metabolism
    • Triiodothyronine(T3) stimulate cell metabolism
    • Calcitonin- lowers blood calcium levels
  52. Parathyroid Glands
    normally 4 are located on the posterior lateral surface of the thyroid

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)- increase blood calcium levels
  53. Thymus gland
    larger in children but shrinks by adulthood

    Thymosin- promotes maturation of T Lymphocytes (responsible for cell immunity)
  54. Pancreas
    contain both endocrine and exocrine tissues

    • exocrine- known as acini secrete digestive enzymes essential to digestion of fats and prooteins
    • Endocrine tissue is known as islets of langerhans three most important endocrine cells are, alpha, beta, delta
    • Alpha and beta produce glucagon, insulin
  55. Glycongenolysis
    the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, primarily by the liver cells
  56. Glucongeogensis
    conversion of protein and fat to form glucose
  57. Outer adrenal glands
    "Adrenal Cortex" - consists of endocrine tissue

    • secretes three classes of steroidal hormones
    • Glucocorticoides
    • Mineralocorticoids
    • Androgenic
  58. Interior Adrenal glands
    • "adrenal medulla" - cells behave as both nerve and gland
    • responsible for secreting epinephrine and norepinephrine
  59. Gonads
    • responsible for the sexual maturation of puberty and repoduction
    • ovaries produce- estrogen and progesterine
    • Testes produce- testosterone
  60. Pineal
    located on root of the thalamus

    • biological clock
    • seasonal affective disorder

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