cell metab

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Author:
lintyone
ID:
104340
Filename:
cell metab
Updated:
2011-09-26 09:58:13
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ibhs2b
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IBHS.E2.L2.Nickola
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  1. anabolism
    sum of synthesis rxns
  2. why do cells synthesize new organic molecules?
    • cell growth
    • maintenance
    • repair
    • synthesis of energy reserves (glycogen, proteins)

    smaller mol --> larger mol reqs E
  3. catabolism
    sum of all decompostion rxns
  4. catabolism
    PDTs go into nutrient pool for:
    • anabolism- making new mol
    • further catab in mitochondria
    • 40% ATP synthesis
    • 60% lost as heat

    larger mol to smaller mol - produces E
  5. ATP
    nucleotide + 1 or 2 Pi = Stored E
    Hydrolysis of terminal phosphate of ATP releases ~7.3 kcal/mol of E

    ATP --> ADP + Pi + E

    majority of ATP is from mitochondria
  6. mitochondria
    • membranous organelle producing ATP
    • "powerplant of cell"

    • one, none or several per cell
    • liver & muscle cells have multiple
  7. mitochondria makeup
    • outer membrane
    • inner membrane
    • matrix
  8. mitochondria makeup
    outer membrane
    separates mitochondria from cytoplasm
  9. mitochondria makeup
    inner membrane
    • folds (cristae) increase surface area
    • increases ATP production
    • location of ETC
    • ETC = oxidative phos. & a lot ATP productn
  10. mitochondria makeup
    matrix
    • "liquid" inside inner membrane
    • location of TCA cycle (Krebs cycle)
  11. metabolism
    all chemical rxns occuring in organism

    metab = anab + catab

    glycolysis & TCA are center of cell metab
  12. preferred energy sources of cell metab
    • glucose
    • triglycerides
    • proteins
  13. preferred energy sources
    glucose
    • *preferred E source
    • source: diet & glycogen stores (liver)

    glycogen --> glucose

    • - brain uses under non-starve condtns
    • - only fuel that RBCs use
  14. preferred energy sources
    triglycerides
    • 2nd fave E source
    • TG --> F.A + glycerol
    • source: diet & triglyceride stores (adipocytes)
  15. preferred energy sources
    proteins
    • 3rd fave
    • Protein --> aa
    • source: diet & protein stores (muscle)
    • only used under duress
  16. carb metab
    cellular respiration
    • use of O2 to convert organic mol into CO2 & H2O
    • (by removing e-) to create E

    • C6H12O6 + 6O2 -->
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
  17. processes involved in cellular respiration
    • glycolysis (can occur in anaerobic condtn)
    • TCA Prep (need O2)
    • TCA cycle (need O2)
    • ETC (need O2)
  18. Coenzymes: NAD+ & FAD
    • non-protein, organic mol; usually vitamins
    • carry H atoms, released during cell resp
    • NADH & FADH2 both take 2 H off whoever
    • The 2H reduce NAD+ & FAD = NADH & FADH2
    • FAD can carry 2e & 2H = FADH2
    • NAD+ can carry 2e & 1H
  19. NAD
    B3 Niacin

    • nicotinamide
    • adenine
    • dinucleotide
  20. FAD
    B2 Riboflavin

    • Flavin
    • Adenine
    • Dinucleotide
  21. Glycolysis
    • [location: cytoplasm]
    • glu in via carrier proteins (passive!)
    • phosphorylated --> glucose-6-phosphate
    • ATP -> ADP = fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
    • 6C convert to 2-3C
    • (glyceraldehyde-3-phos & dihydroxyacetone phos)
    • 2NAD -> 2NADH (1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid)
    • 2ADP -> 2ATP (3-phosphoglyceric acid)
    • release 2H2O
    • Phosphoenolpyruvic acid
    • 2ADP - 2ATP --> pyruvic acid
  22. Glycolysis
    • 1 glucose converted to 2 pyruvate
    • PDTS = 2ATP & 2NADH

    2NADH transported into mitochondria for ETC

    2Pyruvate then enters mitochondria (passive, no ATP)

    *O2 needed to continue, bc O2 needed to regenerate NAD+
  23. TCA Prep
    aka oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate
    • pyruvate in mitochondrial matrix
    • O2 needed!
    • C & O2 removed (=CO2)
    • H removed & added to NAD+ (=2NADH)
    • Results: 2 acetyl grps combine w/CoA
    • =>2 Acetyl CoA
    • PDTS: 2CO2 & 2NADH
  24. TCA Cycle: Overview
    • [occurs in mitochondrial matrix]
    • -each (2) acetyl CoA enters cycle
    • -2 cycles/glucose mol

    • -acetyl grp + oxaloacetic acid (4C)
    • => citric acid (6C)

    • -Citric Acid oxidized (H to NAD+ or FAD)
    • carbons removed (CO2 generated)

    • Regenerate oxaloacetic acid (4C)
    • **cycle goes around 2x!
  25. Products of TCA cycle
    • 4 CO2
    • 6 NADH
    • 2 FADH2
    • 2 ATP from GTP
  26. How is ATP made?
    • ADP + Pi --> ATP
    • phosphorylation
  27. 2 types of phosphorylation make ATP
    • substrate level phosphorylation
    • oxidative phosphorylation
  28. substrate level phosphorylation
    • reactive intermediate
    • (GTP & 1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid & phosphoenolpyruvate in glycolysis)
    • E needed to make ATP comes from breaking GTP
    • GTP -> GDP +Pi
    • Pi + ADP -->(via nucleoside diphosphate kinase) ATP
  29. oxidative phosphorylation
    E needed to make ATP from transfer of e (oxidation) in ETC via ATP Synthase (complex 5 in ETC)
  30. Which type of phosphorylation rxn makes more ATP?
    oxidative phosphorylation
  31. oxidation & phosphorylation coupled to make lots of ATP
    • glucose donates H atoms to carrier mol (NAD FAD), NAD, FAD oxidized (donate H atoms) in ETC.
    • ETC enables phos. of ADP --> ATP
  32. oxidation
    • NADH + FADH2 oxidized
    • => NAD+ & FAD in ETC
  33. phosphorylation
    • ADP + Pi converted via ATP Synthase
    • => ATP

    • 2 H2 + O2 --> 2 H2O + energy
    • highly exergonic rxn
    • must be dispersed over series of small controlled steps in ETC
  34. ETC - overview
    10 NADH & 2FADH2 accumulated

    • Hydrogen Atom
    • e- enter ETC
    • proton pumped into intermembrane space

    ETC produces >90% of all ATP
  35. ETC: Oxidation-Reduction Rxns
    Location?
    mitochondrial inner membrane
  36. ETC: Oxidation-Reduction Rxns
    What happens to NADH & FADH2?
    • becomes oxidized (NAD+ & FAD) when transferring e- to proteins of ETC
    • transfer of e' reduces these proteins of ETC
    • as proteins in chain r reduced/energized some can pump H ions into intermem.space
    • oxygen is final e' acceptor. Gradual process
    • Oxygen +2H = H2O
  37. What are the proteins of the ETC?
    • Coenzymes
    • Cytochromes
  38. What do coenzymes do?
    • accept H atoms (& become reduced) from NADH & FADH2
    • made up of: complex I, II, coenzyme Q
  39. Coenzymes
    Complex I
    • receives 2H atoms from NADH
    • Transfers 2e to Coenzyme Q & pumps 2H into intermembrane space
    • (2H= 1 from NADH, 1 from matrix)
  40. Coenzymes
    Complex II
    • receives 2H atoms from FADH2
    • transfers 2e to Co.Q & 2H released (not pumped)
    • (FADH2 goes along w/ComplexII)
  41. Coenzymes
    Coenzyme Q
    • receives e- from Complex I & Complex II
    • passes them to cytochromes

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