What is the illusory correlation? How does it relate to the importance of research?
Illusory Correlation - focus on two events that stand together, natural but not scientific
Relates to the importance of research - requires much more evidence before conclusions can be drawn
Define skepticism, empiricism, and falsifiability
Skepticism - ideas that must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic, and scientific investigations
Empiricism - Knowledge is based on observations and date
Empiricism - use of objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behavior
falsifiability - the principle that a good scientific idea or theory should be capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods
falsifiability - good scientific ideas can tested and proven false
What is peer review and why is it necessary?
Peer Review - important component of the scientific method
Can Catch mistakes in one's work
Peer Review - the process of judging the scientific merit of research through review by peers of the researcher - other scientists with the expertise to evaluate the research.
What are the GOALS OF SCIENCE?
Predict the Behavior
Determine the cause of behavior
Understand or explain behavior
What is a Research Question?
Does not have a prediction in it, it's just a question
What is a hypothesis?
Hypothesis - Prediction about behavior
Hypothesis - A statement that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular situation; often, a statement asserting that two or more variables are related to one another
null and alternative hypotheses, directional and non-directional hypothesis
Null Hypothesis - the hypothesis, used for statistical purposes, that the variables under investigation are not related in the population, that any observed effect based on sample results us due to random error.
Alternative Hypothesis -
Directional Hypothesis - A specific question outcome and belief on how they go together (as CB increases, the child's behavior will likely decrease)
Non-directional Hypothesis - Not expecting a certain outcome
What are the terms that are used to refer to people who participate in research?
Informants (sometimes parents or teachers, sometimes the participants) - gives information about the participants (adult for the child)
Respondents (often used in survey or interview research) - a study or an interview
How do researchers come up with ideas to study?
Common Sense - common knowledge
Observation about the world around you
What is a research theory? what does it do for researchers?
Definition: organize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior
Provides a framework for ideas
Difference between Scientific theories and everyday theories
List and describe the sections in a research article.
Info about hypothesis
Description of the problems to be studied
Logical connections between past research and hypothesis in current research
Makes the study replicable
Results: Findings presented in 3 ways
Description in narrative form
Tables and graphs
Comparison with past research
What are the relative contributions of nature and nurture?
Twin Studies - 2 types, identical twins raised in two environments and identical twins compared to fraternal twins or siblings
Adoption studies - 2 main types, parents compared to the biological children and adoptive children, adoptive children compared to biological parents and adoptive parents.
Gradual, quantitative, changes in skills and abilities
abrupt qualitative changes, larger, shifts in skills and abilities
Is development Universal?
Universal - all children develop the same - walking, talking, language
Cultural - development is dependent on the culture
Individual Differences - development is different for each person