CAS 301 Study Guide

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CAS 301 Study Guide
2011-09-26 03:49:04
Chapters Scientific Approach

Chapters 1 and 2
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  1. What is the illusory correlation? How does it relate to the importance of research?
    • Illusory Correlation - focus on two events that stand together, natural but not scientific
    • Relates to the importance of research - requires much more evidence before conclusions can be drawn
  2. Define skepticism, empiricism, and falsifiability
    • Skepticism - ideas that must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic, and scientific investigations
    • Empiricism - Knowledge is based on observations and date
    • Empiricism - use of objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behavior
    • falsifiability - the principle that a good scientific idea or theory should be capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods
    • falsifiability - good scientific ideas can tested and proven false
  3. What is peer review and why is it necessary?
    • Peer Review - important component of the scientific method
    • Can Catch mistakes in one's work
    • Peer Review - the process of judging the scientific merit of research through review by peers of the researcher - other scientists with the expertise to evaluate the research.
  4. What are the GOALS OF SCIENCE?
    • Describe behavior
    • Predict the Behavior
    • Determine the cause of behavior
    • Understand or explain behavior
  5. What is a Research Question?
    Does not have a prediction in it, it's just a question
  6. What is a hypothesis?
    • Hypothesis - Prediction about behavior
    • Hypothesis - A statement that makes an assertion about what is true in a particular situation; often, a statement asserting that two or more variables are related to one another
  7. null and alternative hypotheses, directional and non-directional hypothesis
    • Null Hypothesis - the hypothesis, used for statistical purposes, that the variables under investigation are not related in the population, that any observed effect based on sample results us due to random error.
    • Alternative Hypothesis -
    • Directional Hypothesis - A specific question outcome and belief on how they go together (as CB increases, the child's behavior will likely decrease)
    • Non-directional Hypothesis - Not expecting a certain outcome
  8. What are the terms that are used to refer to people who participate in research?
    • Participants
    • Subjects
    • Informants (sometimes parents or teachers, sometimes the participants) - gives information about the participants (adult for the child)
    • Respondents (often used in survey or interview research) - a study or an interview
  9. How do researchers come up with ideas to study?
    • Common Sense - common knowledge
    • Observation about the world around you
    • Theories
    • Past Research
    • Practical Problems
  10. What is a research theory? what does it do for researchers?
    • Definition: organize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior
    • Provides a framework for ideas
    • Difference between Scientific theories and everyday theories
  11. List and describe the sections in a research article.
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Method
    • Results
    • Discussion
  12. Abstract
    • Summary
    • short
    • Info about hypothesis
    • Procedure
    • General results
  13. Introduction
    • Description of the problems to be studied
    • Past Research
    • Formal Hypothesis
    • Logical connections between past research and hypothesis in current research
  14. Method
    • Participants
    • Procedure
    • Measures
    • Makes the study replicable
  15. Results: Findings presented in 3 ways
    • Description in narrative form
    • Statistical Evidence
    • Tables and graphs
  16. Discussion
    • Hypothesis supported
    • Conclusions
    • Explanations
    • Comparison with past research
    • Limitations
    • Future directions
  17. What are the relative contributions of nature and nurture?
    • Twin Studies - 2 types, identical twins raised in two environments and identical twins compared to fraternal twins or siblings
    • Adoption studies - 2 main types, parents compared to the biological children and adoptive children, adoptive children compared to biological parents and adoptive parents.
  18. Continuous
    • Gradual, quantitative, changes in skills and abilities
    • Small Changes
  19. Discontinuous
    abrupt qualitative changes, larger, shifts in skills and abilities
  20. Is development Universal?
    • Universal - all children develop the same - walking, talking, language
    • Cultural - development is dependent on the culture
    • Individual Differences - development is different for each person