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What is a variable? What is a level or value of a variable?
Variable  any event, situation, behavior, or individual characteristic that varies  that is, has at least two variables

What is a level of a variable? or value of a variable?
 Specific instances of the variable
 May be quantitative/numerical
 Values, a number with a variable
 May be instances of a category

Situational Variable
 Describe characteristics of a situation or environment
 May preexist or be manipulated by researcher  previous experiment
 to study things that are all ready there
 Predictor Variable (when preexists) or independent variable (when manipulated by the researcher)

Response Varaible
 Participant's reaction to the situation
 Behavior/Outcome
 Dependent variable (when there is an independent variable) or criterion variable (where there is a predictor variable)

Participant/Subject Variables
 Individual differences about the participant
 Preexisting
 Predictor Variables

What is a conceptual definition of a variable?
 The dictionary definition
 Explanation or description of a variable

What is an operational definition?
 How you will measure the variable
 Definition in your own words

What is a linear relationship between variables? How is a linear relationship measured?
 Linear Relationships  relationship measured with correlation coefficient and direction and strength
 Correlation Coefficient  Relationship between two variables

What is the difference between the direction and strength of a correlation coefficient?

Positive Linear Relationship
 One variable increases, the other variable also increases
 A one slope = a perfect slope
 Example: hot weather/crime  the higher the temp goes the higher the crime rate goes
 Range: 0 to 1.00
 Correlation Coefficient 
 1.00 to 1.00

Negative Linear Relationships
 One Variable increases and the other variable decreases
 Example: constant discipline increase, the negative behavioral problems decrease

No Relationship Linear Relationships
 = zero
 There is no systematic relation between the variables

Curvilinear Relationships
 Cannot measure with a simple correlation coefficient
 Increases in one variable are sometimes associated with an increase in the other variable and sometimes associated with a decrease in the other variable
 Increase/Increase
 Decrease/Decrease
 Increase/Decrease

Nominal Scales
 No numerical values
 Categories
 Basic Scales
 Named Categories
 Anything you cannot put in order
 Example  gender, ethnicity, any yes/no questions

Ordinal Scales
 Ordinal Scales  A scale of measurement in which the measurement categories form a rank order along a continuum
 Ranked from first to last
 Difference between the categories is not necessarily the same

Interval Scales
 Interval Scales  A scale of measurement in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size
 Difference between numbers on scale is meaningful
 Interval are EQUAL IN SIZE
 No true zero
 Example  Temperature

What is a Likert Scale?
 Ordinal
 Ordered rating categories

List the major types of measures
 Questionnaires/Surveys
 Interviews
 Observations
 Direct Test

What is error in a measure?
 Source of error  Operational definition isn't consistent: reliability
 Operational definition doesn't match: Validity

What is reliability?
 Consistency or stability of a measure of behavior
 The degree to which a measure is consistent

TestRetest Relaibility
 A reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on a measure given at one time with scores on the same measure given at a later time.

Internal Consistency Reliability
 Reliability assessed with data collected at one point in time with multiple measures of a psychological construct.  A measure is reliable when the multiple measures provide similar results.

Splithalf Reliability
 A reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on half of the items on a measure with scores on the other half of the measure.

Cronbach's Alpha
 A indicator of internal consistency reliability assessed by examining the average correlation of each item (question) in a measure with every other question

What is validity?
 The Truth and accurate representation of information about your study and measures.

Face Validity
 The degree to which a measurement device appears to accurately measure a variable
 look at the measure to see if it has "face" value

Predicitve Validity
 Related to other things that it should be related to in the future
 Measure something today and compare it to something in the future
 Example  aggression in 10 year olds and the crime rate in the future
 The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the ability of the measure to predict a future behavior

Concurrent Validity
 Related to other things that it should be related to at the same time
 Done at the same time
 Example  SAT scores senior year should be related to current GPA
 The construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining whether groups of people differer on the measure in expected ways

Convergent Validity
 Similar to other measures of the same thing
 Multiple measures of the same thing
 Example  teacher survey of children and observations of the children  they should be the same
 The Construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which scores on the measure are related to scores on other measures of the same construct or similar constructs

Discriminant Validity
 Different from measures of other things
 Low relationships between the 2 measures
 Personality scores should not be related to ones reading ability, therefore, no relationship
 The Construct validity of a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which scores on the measure are not related to scores on conceptually unrelated measures.

What is external Validity?
The degree to which the results of an experiment may be generalized.

