Card Set Information

2011-10-01 07:46:00

Chapters 4-5
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  1. Solids
    Particles are tightly packed, matter has a fixed shaped and volume
  2. Liquid properties
    Particles are loosely packed and can move around. Has a variable shape, but fixed volume
  3. Gas Properties
    Particles are spaced widely apart and uniformly distributed in a container. Shape and volume are both variable, but the susbstance can be condensed
  4. What is Sublimation
    When Solid changes directly to a Gas
  5. What is Deposition
    When gas changes directly to a solid
  6. Properties of Heterogenous Matter
    Properties are indefinite and may vary
  7. Properties of Homogeneous Matter
    Propertis are definite and constant
  8. Describe a Heterogeneous Mixture
    Sample is NOT uniform throughout, and it can be separated through physical methods
  9. Describe a Homogenous Mixture
    Is Constant throughout a given sample, and cannot be separated by physial means
  10. What is an Alloy
    A Homogenous mixture of two or more metals
  11. Define a Substance
    Matter that has definite composition and Constant properites, either a compound or an element
  12. What is a compound?
    A substance that has predictable properties and can be broken dwon into elements through chemical reactions
  13. What is an Element?
    A Substance that cannot be broken down further by chemical reactions
  14. What are the 3 most abundant substances on Earth?
    Oxygen, Silicon and Aluminum
  15. Describe an Element
    Cannot be broken down further and still maintain its unique properties
  16. What are characteristics of Metals?
    Solid, High Density, High Melting Point, Malleable, Ductile
  17. What are characteristics of nonmetals
    Low Density, Low melting point, some are solid and some are gas
  18. What is a semimetal?
    Elements that have properties midway between those of metals and nonmetals
  19. What is the Law of Definite Composition?
    Compounds always contain the same elements in constant proportion by mass
  20. What is a molecule?
    A single particle composed of two or more nonmetal atoms
  21. What is a physical property of a substance?
    • A characteristic of a pur substance that we can observe without changing the composition.
    • ex. appearance, density, boiling point, conductivity, physical state
  22. What is a chemcial property of a substance?
    Describes the substance's chemical reactions with other substances
  23. What is a physical change of a substance considered?
    When the chemical composition does not change
  24. What is a chemical change of a substance considered?
    Includes a chemical reaction, and creates a new substance
  25. Law of Conservation of Mass
    Matter is neither created nor destroyed through a chemical reaction
  26. What is the atomic theory?
    • An element is composed of tiny, indivisible, indestructible particles called atoms
    • All atoms of an element are identical and have the same particles
    • atoms of different elements combine to form compounds
    • Atoms can combine in more than one ratio to form different compounds
  27. What does the atomic number show?
    the number of protons in an atom
  28. What does the mass number show?
    the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  29. What are Isotopes
    Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
  30. What is Atomic Mass?
    the weighted average mass of all naturally occurring isotopes
  31. What is a photon?
    an individual unit of light energy
  32. What is an energy level?
    the fixed orbit in which an electron travels
  33. What are the energy sublevels?
    • s- 2 electrons
    • p- 6 electrons
    • d- 10 electrons
    • f- 14 electrons
  34. What is the uncertainty principle?
    The idea that it is impossible to precisely measure both the location and momentum of an electron
  35. What does the Quantum mechanical atom show?
    Electrons in their orbitals
  36. Name the electron orbitals from weakest to strongest in ring 1-4
    1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 4d, 4f