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Particles are tightly packed, matter has a fixed shaped and volume
Particles are loosely packed and can move around. Has a variable shape, but fixed volume
Particles are spaced widely apart and uniformly distributed in a container. Shape and volume are both variable, but the susbstance can be condensed
What is Sublimation
When Solid changes directly to a Gas
What is Deposition
When gas changes directly to a solid
Properties of Heterogenous Matter
Properties are indefinite and may vary
Properties of Homogeneous Matter
Propertis are definite and constant
Describe a Heterogeneous Mixture
Sample is NOT uniform throughout, and it can be separated through physical methods
Describe a Homogenous Mixture
Is Constant throughout a given sample, and cannot be separated by physial means
What is an Alloy
A Homogenous mixture of two or more metals
Define a Substance
Matter that has definite composition and Constant properites, either a compound or an element
What is a compound?
A substance that has predictable properties and can be broken dwon into elements through chemical reactions
What is an Element?
A Substance that cannot be broken down further by chemical reactions
What are the 3 most abundant substances on Earth?
Oxygen, Silicon and Aluminum
Describe an Element
Cannot be broken down further and still maintain its unique properties
What are characteristics of Metals?
Solid, High Density, High Melting Point, Malleable, Ductile
What are characteristics of nonmetals
Low Density, Low melting point, some are solid and some are gas
What is a semimetal?
Elements that have properties midway between those of metals and nonmetals
What is the Law of Definite Composition?
Compounds always contain the same elements in constant proportion by mass
What is a molecule?
A single particle composed of two or more nonmetal atoms
What is a physical property of a substance?
- A characteristic of a pur substance that we can observe without changing the composition.
- ex. appearance, density, boiling point, conductivity, physical state
What is a chemcial property of a substance?
Describes the substance's chemical reactions with other substances
What is a physical change of a substance considered?
When the chemical composition does not change
What is a chemical change of a substance considered?
Includes a chemical reaction, and creates a new substance
Law of Conservation of Mass
Matter is neither created nor destroyed through a chemical reaction
What is the atomic theory?
- An element is composed of tiny, indivisible, indestructible particles called atoms
- All atoms of an element are identical and have the same particles
- atoms of different elements combine to form compounds
- Atoms can combine in more than one ratio to form different compounds
What does the atomic number show?
the number of protons in an atom
What does the mass number show?
the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
What are Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
What is Atomic Mass?
the weighted average mass of all naturally occurring isotopes
What is a photon?
an individual unit of light energy
What is an energy level?
the fixed orbit in which an electron travels
What are the energy sublevels?
- s- 2 electrons
- p- 6 electrons
- d- 10 electrons
- f- 14 electrons
What is the uncertainty principle?
The idea that it is impossible to precisely measure both the location and momentum of an electron
What does the Quantum mechanical atom show?
Electrons in their orbitals
Name the electron orbitals from weakest to strongest in ring 1-4
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 4d, 4f
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