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What 2 cavities does the Dorsal Cavity contain?
The Cranial (Brain) and Spinal (Spinal Cord) Cavity
What lines the Dorsal cavity?
The meninges, Pia,Arachnoid,Dura
What cavities are contained in the Ventral Cavity?
Thoracic (Pleural, Mediastinum,Pericardial) and Abdominalpelvic Cavity
What is in the Pleural cavities?
What is in the Mediastinum cavity
What is in the Pericardial cavity?
What lines the Ventral Cavity?
The serous membrane which is made up of epithelium (mesophilium) and Connective Tissue (loose areola)
What separates the Abdominopelvic cavity and the Thoracic Cavity?
Define the Parietal of the Serous Membrane
Part of membrane that adheres to the cavity wall
Define the Visceral of the Serous Membrane
Part of the membrane that adheres to the organs
What does serous membrane produce, and what is it's function
Serous membrane produces serous fluid, which lubricates the parietal and visceral layers to glide over one another
What is the serous membrane that lines the pleural cavity called?
Pleura, when it is inflammed it is called pleuritis
What is the serous membrane that lines the pericardial called?
Pericardium, when it's inflammed it is calld pericarditis
What is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal called?
Peritouneum, when inflammed it is called peritonitis
Where does blood come from initially?
The mesoderm germ layer of the embryo
What are the germ layers of an embryo?
Ectoderm (nervous), Mesoderm (Muscle+CT), Endoderm (epithelium)
What type of tissue is blood?
What type of tissue does the mesoderm create?
Mesenchme tissue, these cells are unspecialized, but they become specialized
If the mesenchyme cell becomes a fibroblast what will it end up as?
Fibrocyte, which creates CT proper
If the mesnechyme cell becomes a chondroblast what will it end up as?
Condrocyte, which creates cartilage
If the mesenchyme cell becomes an osteoblast what will it end up as?
Osteocyte, which creates Bone
If the mesenchyme cell becomes a Hemocytoblast what will it end up as?
Where does blood formation occur in an embryo?
In the Yold Sac
Where does blood formation occur in an early fetus?
Where does blood formation occur in a Late fetus
Where does blood formation occur in a child
skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, hip, humerus, femur
Where does blood formation occur in an adult
skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae, hips
What is the function of Blood?
- Distributes Oxygen, nutriests, waste and hormones
- Regulates Body Temp
- Protects against blood loss and infection
What are the 3 ways to draw blood?
Venipuncture, arterialpuncture, Peripheral Capillaries
What is a venipuncture?
Blood drawn from a vein, usually median cubital vein used for its superficial location and low BP
What is an arterial puncture?
Blood drawn from an artery, usually the brachial or radial artery. Used to measure efficieny of gas exchange
How is blood drawn from the peripheral cappillaries?
From fingertip, earlobe, heel in infant. Used for blood smear
What is the color of blood?
Bright red if rich with oxygen, dark red w/ blueish tint if low in oxygen
What is the temperature of blood?
100.4 F/ 38 C
What is the volume of blood in a human?
Men have 5-6L, women have 4-6L
What are the 3 components of blood and their percentages?
- RBC- 45%
- Buffy Coat >1%
What is Hematocrit?
- The % of total blood volume represented by cells (meaning your RBC).
- VPRC- packed red blood cells
- PCV- Packed cell volume
What is the hematocrit average for men? for women?
- Men- 40%-54%, average 47%
- Women- 37%-47% average 42%
Reb blood cells are also called...
1ml of blood has how much RBC in it?
4.5-6.3 x 10 g per cubic milimeter
What is rouleaux?
The stacking of RBC in inflammation and large vessels
What is spectrin?
A cytoskeletal protein that gives RBC flexibility to pass through small or bent areas
What is the function of the RBC?
To carry oxygen and carbon dioxide in it's hemoglobin
What is the Heme in hemoglobin?
a porphyin, an organic substance that carries metal.
What is the globin in hemoglobin?
a protein or amino acid, contains 4 polypeptide chains
How is a polypeptide formed?
When 2 amino acids combine and release h2o
How much oxygen can one hemoglobin carry?
4 oxygen cells
How many hemoglobins are in one RBC?
What is Oxyhemoglobin?
Hemoglobin with Oxygen
What is deoxyhemoglobin?
When hemoglobin gives off oxygen to tissue
What is carbaminohemoglobin?
Hemoglobin with Carbon Dioxide
Name the steps in eythropoiesis
Mesoderm makes mesenchyme cells which turn into hemocytoblasts which create blood
What is hematopoiesis?
- Blood creation
- RBC creation
- WBC creation
What does oxygen bind to in Hemoglobin
What does Cardon Dioxide bind to in Hemoglobin?
The globin protein
Which stem cell is used in Erythropoises?
Myeloid Stem Cell
How long does it take erythopoiesis take?
What is the process of Erythopoiesis?
Myeloid Stem Cell, Proerythroblast, early erythroblast, late erythroblast, normal blast stage, reticulocyte, erythrocyte
What is a proerythroblast?
A commited cell that creates RBC
What occurs during the early erythroblast stage?
an abundance of ribosomes form to produce protein
What occurs during the late erythroblast stage?
Hemoglobin is synthesized
What occurs during the normal blast stage?
Nucleus begins to degenerate and is ejected from the cell with most of the other organelles, this gives the RBC it's collapsed middle
What occurs in the reticulocyte stage?
RBC leaves production site
What occurs during the erytocyte stage?
The RBC is circulating throughout the system
Is the RBC anaerobic or aerobic, why?
Anaerobic, because the mitochondria is ejected during erythropoiesis
What is transferrin?
the iron that is found in the blood
What hormone controls erythropoieisis?
Erythropoietin, produced by the liver and kidney
Why does hypoxia occur?
Because the RBC count drops and therefore oxygen availability is reduced
What is anemia?
a condition characterized by the bloods inability to carry adequate oxygen
What are the causes of anemia?
- decrease in number of RBC
- abnormal hemoglobin content
- abnormal hemoglobin
What is hemorrhagic anemia?
Due to decrease in number of RBC, it is acute (caused by trauma) or chronic (losing small amounts of blood for a long time)
What is hemolytic Anemia?
Due to decrease in number of RBC, it's due to a disease
What is aplastic Anemia?
Caused by decreased RBC count, due to chemicals/toxin/radiation
What is Iron Deficiency Anemia?
Caused by Abnormal hemoglobin content, occurs during pregnancy
What is Pernicious Anemia?
Caused by abnormal hemoglobin content, it's an autoimmune disorder
What is thalessemia?
Caused to abnormal hemoglobin, inability to produce altha or beta chain of hemoglobin
Sickle cell anemia
cause by abnormal hemoglobin, problem with the beta chain of hemoglobin
What is polycythemia?
an exxagerated increase in RBC, makes blood tick and hinders blod flor
What is Primary/Vera polycythemia?
due to an increase in RBC, often found in bone marrow cancer patients
What is Secondary polycythemia?
Due to an increase in RBC, found in areas of high altitude or blood doping
What are the 3 granulocytes, and their percentages?
Neutrophils 40%-70%, Basophils 0%-1%, Eosinophils 1%-4%
What are the 2 agranulocytes and their percentages?
monocytes 4%-8%, lyphocytes 20%-45%
What is the diameter of a RBC?
What are the characteristics of WBC?
- Diapedesis-ability to leave the circulatory system,
- Amoeboid Motion- Moves like an amoeba
- Positive Chemotasis- Releases chemical that calls other WBC
- Phagocytosis- cell eating
What color do Neutrophilis show up as?
Why is a neutrophil name as it is?
Because it takes acidic and basic dyes
What do the granuals in a neutrophil contain?
- defensins- antibiotic like proteins
- lysosomes- digestive enzyme
What is a neutrophils job?
phagocytosis, eating bacteria
Why is eosinophil names as it is?
Because it likes acid and stains red. AKA acidophil
What is the nucleus in an eosinophil look like?
What does an eosinophil's job?
- Eats parasites by sprying a basic protein that destroys the parasite
- Also helps in an allergic reaction
Why is a Basophil named as it is?
Beacsue is likes basic dyes, and stains blue
What does the nucleus in a Basophil look like?
U or S
What do the granuals in a basophil contain?
- Histamine- dialates blood vessels
- Heparin- anticoagulant
What does a monocyte do?
gecomes a phagocytic giant cell that becomes aggressively phagocytic
What color is a monocyte
pink w/ blueish tinge
What does the nucleus of a lympocyte look like?
huge and spherical, nearly covers the whole cell
What are the 3 types of lympocytes?
- T Lymphocyte- involved in cell mediated immunity
- B Lymphocyte- helps produce antibodies, involved in humoral immunity
- NK cell- natural kill cell, immunosurveillance
What is the process of Leukopoiesis for the granulocytes?
Myeloid Stem Cell > Myeloblast > promylocyte > myelocyte > neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil
What is the process of leukopoiesis for monocytes?
Leukopoiesis > Myeloid Stem cell > monoblast > promonocyte > monocyte
What is the leukopoieses for a lymphocyte
Leukopoiesis > lymphoid stem cell > prolymphocyte > lymphocyte
What controls leukopoiesis in Children?
Thymus gland releases thymic hormones which allow for lympocytes which release csf
What are the different types of csf?
- G-csf: granulate stimulating
- M-csf: monocyte stimulating
- GM-csf: both granulate and monocyte stimulating
- Multi-csf: stimulates all blood cells
What stimulates leukopoiesis in Adults?
Antigens (foreign invaders)
What is leukemia?
Cancer of WBC, they cannot protect and they take over RBC space
What is the difference between acute and chronic leukemia?
- Acute occurs in the -blast stage
- chronic occurs in the -cyte stage
What are the two cells that leukemia affects?
Myeloid and lymphoid
What are the 4 types of leukemia?
- Acute Lymphoid Leukemia
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia
- Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
What are platelets?
Cell fragments, aka thrombocytes
What is the process of thrombocytopoiesis?
Myeloid Stem Cell > Megokaryoblast > promegakaryocyte > Megakayocyte, which breaks apart creating platelets
What controls thrombocytopoiesis?
- IL-6 (Macrophages)
- Multi- csf (only in children)
What is plasma made up of?
- Solvent, water 92%
- Solute, 8%
What is solute of plasma made of?
- Albumin 60%
- Globular Proteins 35%
- Clotting proteins 4%
- Misc. 1%
What is albumin?
- Important of osmotic pressure, keeps liquid in blood
- helps transport hormones, vitamins and drugs
What are globular proteins found in plasma?
- 3 types:
- Alpha and Beta: transporting proteins,
What are the two clotting proteins?
What is TXA2?
What is PGI2?
When a blood vessel is damaged what changes in the PGI2 and TXA2 levels in your blood?
PGI2 goes down, TXA2 increases
What does the cross section of a blood vessel contain from internal to external?
- Lumen- space where blood passes through
- Endothelial Cells- simple squamous epithelium
- Basement Membrane
- Smooth muscle
What are the 3 phases of hemostasis?
- 1. Vascular
- 2. Platelet
- 3. Coagulation
What occurs during the vascular phase of hemostasis?
- 1- endothelial cells at site of injury retract and expose blood to basement membrane
- 2- endothelial cells release local hormones and chemical factors
What are the local hormones released during the vascualr stage of hemostasis?
Endothelins- the stimulate the smooth muscle to contract, whichc makes the blood vessel constrict, which cause blood flow to slow down
What is the chemical factor released during the vascualr phase of hemostasis?
Van Willebran Factor- it makes the vessel wall sticky
What occurs during the platelet phase of hemostasis?
- 1-Platelets begin to adhere to vessel wall
- 2- exposed collagen fibers bind to platelet membrane receptor to produce TXA2
- 3- TXA2 leads to platelet degrenulation and releases ADP
- 4- ADP binds to platelet membrane receptro Aggregin, which creates a platelet plug
What occurs during the coagulation phase of hemostasis?
The clot coagulates
Need to know about Pathways of hemostasis
- 1- The intrinsic pathway is the longest
- 2- The extrinsic pathway has tissue factore and is shorter than intrinsic pathway
- 3- Both work on inactive factore X (10) to activate it
- 4- Extrinsic pathway forms little thrombin, but does so immediately
- 5- Intrinsic pathway forms a lot of thrombin, but slower
What occurs during Clot retraction/syneresis?
- -Platelets adhered to fibers contain actin and mysoin whichc begin to contract and pull the fibrous strands back together
- - Endothelians released in the vascualar phase have already started to heal the vessel
- -Platelet derived growth factor stimulates the cells to proliferate
What is a thrombus?
a clot that forms and persists in walls of an unbroken vessel
What is Atheroma?
When fatty plaques form in blood vessels
What is it called when a thrombus is dislodged?
It is called an emolus, which means that it is floating freely in the blood
What are the 3 bleeding disorders?
- Liver Disease
What is thrombocytopenia?
A reduction in the number of platelets which means that your blood won't clot
What happens if you have liver disease?
Your liver needs Vitamin K to create clotting factors 2,7,9,10. If the liver is compromised clotting could be difficult
What are the 2 types of hemophilia?
- Type A- deficiency of factor 8
- Type B- deficiency of factor 9, sex related disorder