Card Set Information

2011-09-26 16:33:51
AHS307 Anticonvulsants

Barb (4) Ben (4) PoBro (2) Phen(1) Add (5) Clinical Que (5)
Show Answers:

  1. Barbiturates
    • Drugs that are chemical derivatives of barbituric acid and act as CNS depresents
    • Work by impraring chemical transmissions of impulses across synapses in the brain stem
    • Barbs: Phenobarbital, Pentobarbital, Primidone
  2. Phenobarbital
    • Long acting (6-8hrs)
    • Depresses the motor centers of the cerebral cortex
    • Choce of anticonvulsant for dogs and cats
    • C-IV controlled
    • Oral (tablet, elixir) & Parenterally (IV) to control seizures
    • Brand names: Solfoton, Luminal, Barbita & generic forms
    • Increase in liver enzymes (esp. if on alk Phos and ALT)
    • SE: araxia (temp), drowsiness, liver damage, respiratory depression, PU/PD, polyphagia
    • Blood samples taken to determine leveles and doses altered accordingly
  3. Pentobarbital
    • Short acting (1-2hrs)
    • Used to control seizures esp. when caused by toxins (ex. astrychnine)
    • C-II controlled
    • IV, or Oral (less common)
    • Brand names: Nembutal, Somnotol, & generics
    • SE: repiratory depression, hypothermia
    • SQ & perivascularly routes avoided ( can be very irritating)
    • **Also used as euthanasia solu.
  4. Primidone
    • Structurally similar to Phenobarbital (broken down to phenobarb. and phenylethylmalondiamide
    • C-IV???
    • Oral
    • Brand Names: Mylepsin, Mysoline, Neurosyn, & generics
    • Can induce liver enzymes that increse its own & other drug metabolism
    • SE: Ataxia, PU/PD & polyphagia
  5. Benzodiazepines
    • Drugs that the effects of GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitter that stabilizes nerve cell membranes)
    • ** Also cause muscle relaxation and relieve anxiety
    • Bens: Diazepam, Lorazepam, Clorazepate
  6. Diazepam
    • Short acting (3-4 hrs)
    • Works by increasing GABA
    • C-IV controlled
    • IV (status epilepticus - rapid succession of epileptic seizure), oral as an adjunct to treatment
    • Once seizures are under control, oral anticonvulsant therapy is initiated
    • Brand name: Valium
    • SE: CNS excitement (contraditory) & weakness
  7. Lorazepam
    • Long acting (5-6?)
    • C-IV controlled
    • Easier to admin to patients w/ status epi
    • IN, IM, & buccal
    • Brand name: Ativan
    • SE: increased appetite, ataxia, vocalization
  8. Clorazepate
    • C-IV controlled
    • Oral as an adjunt anticonvulsant (usually w/ Pheno) & for behavioral phobias
    • Brand Names: Cloraze Caps, Tranxene-SD, GenENE
    • SE: sedation, ataxia
  9. Potassium Bromide
  10. Phenytoin
    • Used in human med
    • Undesirable SE: inc. rapid blood pressure decreases - severely limited use in animals
    • Brand name: Dilantin
  11. Add-ons
    Adds: Levitiracetam, Zonisamide, Gabapentin, Felbamate
  12. Levitiracetam
    • Binds to a synaptic vesicle protein (SV2A) that affects neurotransmission, preventing propagations of seizure activity
    • 100% bioavaliabe in Oral (tablet &solution) add-on in dogs & cats w/ refracory epilepsy & also IV as bolus for dogs w/ status epi.
    • Brand name: Keppra
    • SE: sedation, ataxia, andorexia
    • Not metabolized by liver (valuble in animals w/ pheno. hepatic toxicity)
  13. Zonisamide
    Brand name:
  14. Gabapentin
    Brand name:
  15. Felbamate
    Brand name: