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When do chemical reactions occure inside cells?
At all times
What are two types of metabolic reactions?
Anabolism & Catabolism
What is a metabolic reaction where small molecules join together to form larger molecules?
-Building tissue, cell growth, repair
-AKA dehydration sythesis (not enough water)
-i.e. glucose stored as glycogen
What metabolic reaction breaks down tissue?
It also takes larger molecules & breaks them down to smaller. Energy is released.
AKA Hydrolysis (adding water)
i.e. Glycogen to glucose
What are proteins whose function is to control the rate of reactions? Typically large proteins that speed up (increase the rate of) chemical reactions.
Define a substrate
A particular molecule upon which a specific enzyme acts, if they do not match exactly then they will fail to to bind, ensuring that the enzyme does not participate in the wrong reaction.
What do the substrate + enzyme = ?
Enzyme/Substrate complex (= product + enzyme)
What is the difference between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis synthesis?
- Dehydration synthesis = anabolism
- Hydrolysis synthesis = catabolism
The outer layer of skin, made up of epipheseal tissue is called
The inner layer of the skin, made up of connective tissue
The inner most layer of the skin, made up of adapose and loose connective tissue
What are the primary functions of skin?
- Mechanical barrier (protection from outside)
- Heal damage (wounds/burns)
- Temperature control for the body
What creates/produces heat in the body?
Cell metabolism (more active cells create more heat, Ex: cardiac and skeletal muscle)
How does the body regulate when the temperature increases?
- Warm blood reaches the hypothalamus (tells the body to cool off)
- Vasodilation of blood vessels in the dermis (brings heat to the surface and tells it to cool off)
- Vasoconstriction of deeper blood vessels (keeps cool blood in, closes off)
Conduction (direct contact with cooler object)
Convection (cooler air replaces warmer air)
Evaporation (sweat turns from liquid to gas taking heat with it)
Means of body heat loss
What happens when body temperature drops below set point?
- all mean of body heat are inhibited
- shivering (involuntary contraction of muscles)
Can't get rid of the heat, heat stroke, heat exhaustion (neurons in the brain begin to break down)
- Lowered body temperature, prlonged exposure to cold, shivering, if not treated can lead to shutting down of organs, mental confusion, etc...
- Sometimes it is intentionally used during certain surgical procedures involving the heart, brain or spinal cord, 78-89 °, ice or removal of blood, chilling it and then returning it
- dilation of blood vessels
- nurtient & oxygen
- more blood to area
(loss of function)
Signs of inflammation
Epithelial proliferation increases - newly formed cells, "fill in the gap"
Scab (blood clot and dried fluid)
- occures when blood vessels break
- protects underlying tissues
granulations - small rounded masses that develop in exposed tissue (new blood vessels + collagen-secreting fibroblasts that vessels nourishment)
What the differences between burns?
1st degree - mild, only epidermis, healing usually occures within a few days to 2 weeks, no scarring
2nd - moderate, dermis & epidermis, blistering, fluid escaps from damaged capillaries as it accumulates beneath the outer layer of epidermal cells, blisters appear
3rd - sever, epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layer/accessory organs (possible damaged beyond repair), the injured skin becomes dry & leathery and may vary in color from red to black to white (no hair/sweat), result of immursion in hot liquids, prolonged exposure to hot objects, flames, corrosive chemicals, epithelial cell are often destroyed (scarring), treatment may involve autograft, sky from uninjured part of body is transplated to injured area, or a homogrft (person to person, temporary covering).
What is the rule of nines?
How %'s are calculated, like "He has 2nd degree burns over 80% of his body" (this % is for an arm, this % is for a leg etc...)
When does bone development begin/end?
Bone development begins prenatally and continues into adulthood. Connective tissue is replaced by bone tissue as we age.
Define Intramembranous Bone
- (Think skull bones)
- A.K.A. Intramembranous Ossification
- Membrane like layers of unspecialized connective tissue (soft spot), no cartilage is present
Define Endochondral Bone
- (Think femur - long bones - marrow in the core)
- A.K.A. Endochondral ossification
- Hayline cartilage models are replaced by bone tissue, important in the healing process of bones.
What is an epiphyseal plate?
A growth plate. A child's long bones are still growing if a radiograph shows the epiphyseal plates.
What happens if epiphyseal plate is damaged before it ossifies?
Elongation of that bone may cease or growth may be uneven.
What is known as continual remodeling of bone?
Homestasis of bone
What is known as a break down of the bone?
What is know as the build up of a bone?
What is a major factor affecting bone development, growth and repair?
Vitamin D (and bone development, growth and repair)
- uncommon in natural foods, except eggs
- found in milk and dairy - fortified with it
- forms from deydrocholesterol, produced by cells in the digestive tract, which is carried to the skin and converts to vitamin D with exposure to ultraviolet light
Vitamin A (and bone development, growth and repair)
- necessary for osteoblast and osteclast activity during normal development
- deficiency will retard bone development
Vitamin C (and bone development, growth and repair)
Required for collagen synthesis
Hormonal secretions (and bone development, growth and repair)
- Growth hormone (pituitary gland)
- - stimulates cartilage epiphyseal plates
- - long bones fail to develop if absent (pituitary dwarfism)
- - excess GH (pituitary gigantism); in an adult (acromegaly)
- Thyroid hormone (thyroxine)
- Sex hormones (estrogen, testosterone)
Does exposure to sunlight affect bone development, growth and repair?
Does physical exercise affect bone development, growth and repair?
Yes, think of Wolff's law, the more stress is placed on a bone the bigger it gets. Skeletal MS contract and putll their attachemtns on bones which cause stress & stimulates the bone to thicken & strengthen.
Most bones of the skeletal system are of this type?
What are the functions of bones?
- Support & protect
- Body movement (levers)
- Blood cell formation
- Inorganic salt storage
What type of blood cells are formed in flat bones?
Red blood cells
What does red marrow do?
Functions in the formations of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Why is red marrow red?
Because of the red oxygen carrying pigment hemoglobin in the red blood cells
What type of marrow occupies the cavities of most bones in infants? What type of marrow replaces it with increasing age?
Red and yellow
What does yellow marrow do?
Stores fat. It is in inactive (does not participate) in blood cell production.
What % of inorganic salt storage is calcium and phospherous? (small crystals)
What is the difference between red & yellow marrow?
Red makes blood cells/platletes, yellow stores fat.
What are the two major minerals stored in bone?
Calcium and phosphorous