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a process by which individuals organize and interpret their semsory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
Factors that influence perception
suggests when we observe an individuals behavior we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused
our determination of internally and externally caused behavior depends largely on 3 factors
- distinctiveness-indiviuals display different behavior in different situations
- consensus-people behave the same in similar situations?
- consistency-response the same over time?
allows us to "speed read" others but n without the risk of drawing an innacurate picture
fundamental attribution error
when we make judements about thebehavior of people we have a tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors
tendency to attribute their own successes to internal factors such as the ability or effort while putting the lame for failure on external factors such as bad luck or unproductive co-workers.
drawing a general impression about an individual on the bias of a single characteristic, such as intelligence, sociability or appearrance.
- can distort perceptions
- we dont evaluate a person in isolation, our reaction is influenced by others we have recently encountered
when we judge somone based on our perception of the group to which he or she belongs (a shortcut)
choices amoung two or more alternatives
a descrepancy exists between current state of affairs and some desired state requiring us to consider alternative courses of action
best deicion maker
rational and makes consistent, value maximizing choices, within specified constraints
rational decision making model
- 1. define the problem
- 2. identify the decision criteria
- 3. allocate weights to the criteria
- 4. develop the alternatives
- 5. evaluate the alternatives
- 6. select the best alterntive
human mind cannot solve complex problems with full rationality, we cinstruct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their compexity.
intuitive decision making
nonconcious process created from distilled experience. the least rational way to make a decision. (it doesn't make it worng though)
tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
we seek out information that reaffirms our past choices instead of objectively gathering all information available
tendency for people to base their judgements on info that is readily available to them
escalation of commitment
refers to staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it's wrong.
tendency to believe falsley after the out-come of an event is actually known, that we'd hae accurateately predicted that outcome
Organizational constraints on deicision making
- performance evaluation
- reward systems
- formal regulations
- system-imposed time constraints
- historical precedents
3 ethical decision criteria
- utilitaianism - greates good for greates number
- rights - decisions consistent with findamental liberties and privileges
- justice - impose rules fairly and impartially
people that reveal unethical practices by their organization to the press or gov agency on the grounds of their right to free speech
ability to produce novel and useful ideas
three component model of creativity
- this model proposes that individual creativity essentially requires:
- 1)expertise 2)creative thinking skills 3)intrinsic task motivation