History 12: Chapter 20

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gandalfthegrey
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104459
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History 12: Chapter 20
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2011-09-26 20:27:37
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Chapter 20
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Gilded Age Politics
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  1. Introduction
    The Era from 1877 to 1900 may be characterized by special interest ascendancy and political exclusion. The ascendancy of special interest groups created corruption and greed that shaped politics and tugged at the fabric of democracy. A majority of Americans (people of color, women, the poor) were excluded from voting and from access to the tools of democracy. Ultimately, rural discontent and a deep economic depression brought new economic configurations and new political alignments.
  2. What did black southerners have to endure?
    Economic and political oppression, along with extreme violence (lynching)
  3. How did whites disfranchise African Americans?
    White politicians limited black access to the polls through such measures as the poll tax, literacy tests, and the "grandfather clause".
  4. What led to the South passing Jim Crow laws?
    The Supreme Court's decision in the Civil Rights cases of 1883.
  5. What case helped uphold the "seperate-but-equal" basis for legal segregation?
    Plessy v. Ferguson.
  6. How did African Americans challenege the discriminatory political climate?
    By boycotting, promoting "Negro enterprise", using higher education to elevate their satus, etc.
  7. What two groups did woman suffrage split into?
    The National Women Suffrage Association, who fought for a constitutional amendment and suffrage on a national level, and the American Women Suffrage Association, who worked for suffrage on a state level.
  8. Who was southern agriculture dominated by?
    Landlords who employed sharecroppes and tenants.
  9. True/False: Under the crop-lein system, sharecroppers and tenants prospered.
    False. Often, they could not repay loans.
  10. What hardships befell the midwest and west?
    Midwestern farmers faced falling crop prices with rising expenses. Western farmers and miners suffered due to railroad monopolies.
  11. As agricultural prices dropped, what did farmers organize?
    The Grange, started by Oliver H. Kelley.
  12. When did the Grange's influence decline significantly?
    In the late 1870's.
  13. What and who were the White Hats?
    The White Hats created to counter the movement of English-speaking ranchers into communal pastureland by Hispanics in the Southwest.
  14. What was The Farmers' Alliances?
    A genuine mass movement in 1890 sponsored by political rallies, educational meetings, and cooperative marketing agreements.
  15. What did the Alliances propse?
    A subtreasury plan to releive shotages of cash and credit. However, the government would not help.
  16. In 1890, the Kansas Alliance held " a convention of people". What were these people called?
    Populists.
  17. Whose needs did the Populists want to address?
    Those of farmers and laborers.
  18. True/False: Populist spokespeople were very respective.
    False. They often used political language that was stirring and often inflammatory.
  19. What made the currency issue critical?
    The Panic of 1893, where people rushed to redeem their money.
  20. How did Congress respond?
    Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
  21. What offer did President Cleveland take from J.P. Morgan in order to stem the run on the United States Treasury?
    An offer of gold.
  22. What were the consequences of the Depression?
    The demise of the old economic system and the emergence of a new one were hastened. The depression became widespread because of the national economy, and American farmers had to respond to a new global marketplace.
  23. What led to the Depression-Era pritests?
    The emergence of new corporate institutions that widened the gap between employers and employees.
  24. How many strikes were there when the economy plunged into recession in 1894?
    Over 1300 strikes.
  25. What party did some turn with the depression?
    Socialism.
  26. Who was elevated to a position of leadership within the socialist movement after the Pullman Strike of 1894?
    Eugene V. Debs.
  27. What was Coxey's army?
    500 unemplyed workers who followed Jacob Coxey, who urged the government to issue unbacked paper money to stimulate spending, to Washington, D.C in 1894. Congress refused to respond, and the police crushed the protest.
  28. What did Socialists make their primary issue by 1896. Why?
    Free silver, which they believed would end the privileged position of the rich.
  29. What did Republican nominee McKinley support?
    The Gold standard.
  30. Who did both the Democrats and Populists nominate?
    William Jennings Bryan.
  31. Who won, and why?
    McKinley. Republicans raised much more money. Also, free silver did not provide the reform issue that would unite the masses.
  32. As president, what did McKinley do?
    He signed the Gold Standard Act of 1900, oversaw an increase in tariff rates, and encouraged imperialistic ventures in Latin America and the Pacififc.

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