ethics test 1
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Tell us what is. (Factual things)
Tell us what ought to be. (deals with values and principles)
Negative moral obligations
Require us only to refrain from doing certain things (also called passive obligations since they do not require to really do anything but refrain)
Positive moral obligations
Requires us to actually get out and do something (Active obligations)
What is a major question that is asked about positive moral obligations?
To what extent of action is good enough? We don't have any precise or easy answers
What is virtue ethics?
A theory that emphasizes character and right being over right actions.
Which philosopher was heavily incorporated into virtue ethics?
What did Aristotle think the proper function of a human being was?
Aristotle thought that the function of being a human being was to unlitmately achieve some sort of eudamonia : "Functioning well"
How does Aristiotle distinguish the proper function of a human from the functions we share with a living things?
We have the ability to think and act rationally
Things we want so we can get something else we want.
Things we want only for their own sake
Things we want, both for their own sake & for the sake of something else.
What did Aristotle believe was the one final end that everyone wanted?
What must humans do to achieve aristotles theorectial final end?
By habituation. Living life and adapting personal advances toward virtuous things so that we can nuture our intellectual virtue while having our moral virtues compose naturally.
Philosphical theory that morality is created by or relative to the individual person. (The truth of a moral claim is relative to a person)
Truth depends on properties of the thing
truth depends on the feeling or POV of person making the claim
Why are objective claims "just plain true"
Because their truths are based on universally factual details
why are subjective claims "relative"
Because their truths is relative to the individual's thoughts or opinions.
Which philosopher is heavily incorporated in Ethical Subjectivism?
What was Mackie's argument from relativity?
- Diff. ppl (esp. from a diff culture) Have different assumption about what is morally right or wrong.
- sometimes dissagreements about what is right can be resolved by finding contradictions on one side of the argument and/or by establishing more general ethical principles that both parties agree upon.
- In cases of deep and irreconciable ethical agreements, there is no established method for reolving the conflict
What was Mackie's argument from queerness?
- If obj. values (goodness, badness, etc.) were features of things/actions, they would be very odd kinds of features not at all like (color, speed, etc.)
- Hard to explain how we perceieve values and actions.
- Sub. values by contrast are easy to explain - all human beings have pos. and neg. physical/behavioral responses to things in their environment. (Use good for response to positive things and bad foor negative things)
The view that moral claims are true or false only relative to a particular culture.
Cultural relativism is not...
The view that each person should do w/e their culture says is right.
Why is the given example of what Cult. Rela. is, not in fact cult. rela?
It entails that there are objective criteria for determining whether particular actions are right or wrong.
According to MLK, what criteria does a just law have?
- Fits with the moral laws
- Uplifts human personality
- Everyone chooses it and it applies to everyone equally.
According to MLK, what criteria does an unjust law have?
- Out of harmony with moral law
- The majority inflicts on a minority w/o letting this law apply to themselves.
- Degrades human personality
- Treats people as things
Divine command theory
The only standard of goodness is God's will. So god could have willed that we do anything. W/e God wills is what it is good for us to do w/e god forbids is what we should refrain from doing.
Aquina's natural law theory
moral goodness is determined by rational principles (the moral law) which are independent of god's will. B/c god is perfectly good and rational, he cannot will that we do anything but what the moral law determines to be good. Bad gives us come power to distinguish good from bad through reason.
is the participation of the eternal law in the rational creature God has made human beings rational by nature. This means we have natural inclinations to get in accordance w/ the eternal law and to a limited extent, grasp the eternal law as it applies to us.
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