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What is psychology?
The scientific study of human behavior and mental processes
What is the birth year and place of psychology?
1879 in the lab of Wilhelm Wundt
- The goal to break consciousness into basic elements
- Introspection - systematically observes our own consciousness
- "What is the purpose of consciousness?"
- William James was influenced by Darwin
Rules of Introspection
- 1. The observer must know when the experience begins and ends
- 2. The observer must maintain "strained attention"
- 3. The phenomenon must bear repetition
- 4. The phenomenon must be capable of variation
7 contemporary perspectives (schools)
- Focused on unconscious and early childhood experiences
- Sigmund Freud
- Only studies ovservable behaviors, behavior determind by envionment
- John B Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner
- Charges that both were dehumanizing
- We have free will and make choices for personal growth
- Abraham Maslow, Carl Rodgers
- Cognition - Mental processes involved in aquiring knowledge
- Understanding behavior by looking at how people think
- Jean Piaget
- Behavior explained in terms of physiological processes
- Brain and Nervous system
- Natural selection occurs for behavioral, as well as physical characteristics
3 principles of the scientific method
- Research and observations
A principle of set of principles pruposed to explain how a number of seperate facts are related
A testable prediction; often applied by a theroy
Research and observations
describe, predict and explain
What is a Case Study?
An observation technique in which one person or group is studied in depth over an extended period of time
What is Naturalistic Observation?
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to munipulate or control the situation
The correlational method (research)
A research method used to establish the degree of relationshipo (correlation)between two characteristics, events, or behaviors
Building block of the nervous system, allows for communiction
Receive messages from the other cells
Terminal branches of axon
form junctions with other cells
Passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
The cells life support center (Soma)
Covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
electrical signal traveling down the axon
Sensory Neurons (afferent)
Relay info from the senses to brain and spinal cord
Motor Neurons (efferent)
Carry outgoing info from the CNS to muscles and glands
carry information between neurons
Brief electical charge that travels down an axon
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Structures of synapse
- Axon Terminal
- Synaptic Vesicles Neurotransmitters
- Synaptic Cleft
- Receptor Sites
Triggers muscle contraction; involved in learning
linked to pain control and to pleasure
What does the Nervous system deal with?
Electrchemical communication system
What does the Cental Nervous system deal with?
The brain and spinal cord
What does the peripheral nervous system deal with?
Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the resst of the body
Controls functions such as hunger, thirst, body temperature; helps control endocrine system; involved in emotion
Controls unconscious motor actions
plays role in relaying motor messages between cerebellum and motor cortex exerts influence on sleep and dreaming
control center for heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, and coughing
extenion of breain; controls simple reflexes connects brain to peripheral nervous system
arousal system; activates cerebral cortex
coordinates skilled movement; regulates muscle tone and posture; plays a role in motor learning and probably cognition
relay station between cerebral cortex and lower brain centers
group of structures involved in emotional expression, memory, and motivation
Making plans and judgment
the somatosensory cortex
the brains capacity for modification