Psychology CH 1-3

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Psychology CH 1-3
2011-09-26 17:55:24
Ben Libby

Psychology Chapters 1 - 3
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  1. What is psychology?
    The scientific study of human behavior and mental processes
  2. What is the birth year and place of psychology?
    1879 in the lab of Wilhelm Wundt
  3. Structuralism
    • The goal to break consciousness into basic elements
    • Introspection - systematically observes our own consciousness
    • Titchener
  4. Funtionalism
    • "What is the purpose of consciousness?"
    • William James was influenced by Darwin
  5. Rules of Introspection
    • 1. The observer must know when the experience begins and ends
    • 2. The observer must maintain "strained attention"
    • 3. The phenomenon must bear repetition
    • 4. The phenomenon must be capable of variation
  6. 7 contemporary perspectives (schools)
    • Psychoanalysis
    • Behaviorism
    • Humanistic
    • Cognitive
    • Biological
    • Evolutionary
    • Sociocultural
  7. Psychoanalysis
    • Focused on unconscious and early childhood experiences
    • Sigmund Freud
  8. Behaviorism
    • Only studies ovservable behaviors, behavior determind by envionment
    • John B Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner
  9. Humanistic Psychology
    • Charges that both were dehumanizing
    • We have free will and make choices for personal growth
    • Abraham Maslow, Carl Rodgers
  10. Cognitive Psychology
    • Cognition - Mental processes involved in aquiring knowledge
    • Understanding behavior by looking at how people think
    • Jean Piaget
  11. Biological Psychology
    • Behavior explained in terms of physiological processes
    • Brain and Nervous system
  12. Evolutionary Psychology
    • Natural selection occurs for behavioral, as well as physical characteristics
    • Buss
  13. Sociocultural Psychology
  14. 3 principles of the scientific method
    • Theroy
    • Hypothesis
    • Research and observations
  15. Theroy
    A principle of set of principles pruposed to explain how a number of seperate facts are related
  16. Hypothesis
    A testable prediction; often applied by a theroy
  17. Research and observations
    describe, predict and explain
  18. What is a Case Study?
    An observation technique in which one person or group is studied in depth over an extended period of time
  19. What is Naturalistic Observation?
    Observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to munipulate or control the situation
  20. The correlational method (research)
    A research method used to establish the degree of relationshipo (correlation)between two characteristics, events, or behaviors
  21. Neuron
    Building block of the nervous system, allows for communiction
  22. Dendrites
    Receive messages from the other cells
  23. Terminal branches of axon
    form junctions with other cells
  24. Axon
    Passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
  25. Cell Body
    The cells life support center (Soma)
  26. Myelin Sheath
    Covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
  27. Neural impulse
    electrical signal traveling down the axon
  28. Sensory Neurons (afferent)
    Relay info from the senses to brain and spinal cord
  29. Motor Neurons (efferent)
    Carry outgoing info from the CNS to muscles and glands
  30. Inerneurons
    carry information between neurons
  31. Action Potential
    Brief electical charge that travels down an axon
  32. Threshold
    The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
  33. Structures of synapse
    • Axon Terminal
    • Synaptic Vesicles Neurotransmitters
    • Neurotransmitters
    • Synaptic Cleft
    • Receptor Sites
  34. Acetylcholine
    Triggers muscle contraction; involved in learning
  35. Endorphons
    linked to pain control and to pleasure
  36. What does the Nervous system deal with?
    Electrchemical communication system
  37. What does the Cental Nervous system deal with?
    The brain and spinal cord
  38. What does the peripheral nervous system deal with?
    Sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the resst of the body
  39. Hypothaiamus
    Controls functions such as hunger, thirst, body temperature; helps control endocrine system; involved in emotion
  40. Substantia
    Controls unconscious motor actions
  41. Pons
    plays role in relaying motor messages between cerebellum and motor cortex exerts influence on sleep and dreaming
  42. medulla
    control center for heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, and coughing
  43. spinal cord
    extenion of breain; controls simple reflexes connects brain to peripheral nervous system
  44. reticular formation
    arousal system; activates cerebral cortex
  45. Cerebellum
    coordinates skilled movement; regulates muscle tone and posture; plays a role in motor learning and probably cognition
  46. thalamus
    relay station between cerebral cortex and lower brain centers
  47. limbic system
    group of structures involved in emotional expression, memory, and motivation
  48. Frontal Lobes
    Making plans and judgment
  49. Parietal Lobes
    the somatosensory cortex
  50. Occipital Lobes
    Visual cortex
  51. Temporal Lobes
    auditory cortex
  52. Plasticity
    the brains capacity for modification