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__________ is the major contributor to CAD, the blood vessel disease of the epicardial arteries supplying oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium.
__________ begins as fatty streaks of the arterial wall in adolescents, progressing to hard fatty plaques that narrow the artery lumen in adulthood and can rupture, creating thrombotic occlusions that cause ischemia.
There are several risk factors associated with the development of ______ including age, sex, family history, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle.
True or Flase: CAD presents as stable angina and ACS.
True or False: The goals of angina treatment are to improve quality of life by decreasing episodes of angina and ischemia and increase the quantity of life by preventing progression to MI and death.
Treatment of ________ includes the use of medications, therapeutic lifestyle changes, percutaneous interventions, and surgery.
The goals of ACS treatment are to:
limit myocardial damage and prevent complications and recurrent events
Treatment of _____ includes initiating prompt care, managing acute pain, reperfusing the myocardium, preventing complications, preventing myocardial remodeling and heart failure, rehabilitation, and patient education.
Which of the following are risk factors for CAD?
c. cigarette smoking
d. all of the above
Typical stable angina symptoms include all of the following except:
a. chest pressure occurring with activity
b. chest pressure relieved with rest or nitroglycerin
c. chest pressure lasting greater than 20 minutes not relieved by rest
d. chest pressure that occurs with the same onset, duration, and intensity
The clinical spectrum of ACS includes:
a. stable angina & STEMI
b. stable angina & NSTEMI
c. unstable angina & SCD
d. unstable angina, STEMI, & NSTEMI
Initial diagnosis studies in the client suspected of having an acute MI include and ECG and:
a. cardiac enzymes
b. exercise stress test
c. nuclear stress test
The following are common medications used for CAD and ACS:
b. beta blockers
d. all of the above
Identify at least 3 nursing diagnoses for clients with angina an MI.
- Acute pain (angina) r/t the imbalance btw myocardial oxygen supply & demand.
- Ineffective tissue perfusion r/t myocardial ischemia & decreased cardiac output.
- Anxiety r/t pain, perceived threat of death, possible lifestyle changes, and diagnosis of CAD.
- Activity intolerance r/t angina, pulmonary congestion, fatigue, and inadequate tissue perfusion.
- Ineffective therapeutic regimen management related to lack of knowledge r/t disease process, prognosis, and treatment strategies.
List the 5 components of client education for clients with stable angina.
understanding of cardiac condition, chest pain management, activity, medications, risk factor modification, diet & S/S to report to the physician
The goals of therapy for stable angina are to __________ the quality of life by __________ episodes of angina and ischemia and ___________ the quality of life by __________ progression to myocardial infarction and death.
The goals of therapy for stable angina are to improve the quality of life by decreasing epodes of angina and ischemia and increase the quality of life by preventing progression to myocardial infarction and death.
The goals of therapy for acute MI are to __________ myocardial damage and __________ complications and recurrent events.
The goals of therapy for acute MI are to limit myocardial damage and prevent complications and recurrent events.