the outcome of US v. Paramount Pictures. in a 1948 anti-trust case.
before, 8 studios dominated the film industry,
most extreme case of vertical integration
What is block booking?
in order for an independent theater to get the big new studio film with top talent, it also had to agree to take another block of films less desirable.
What are three questions that help understand regulation?
1. who regulates
2. what is regulated
3. how do regulations have consequences on the products media industries create
What are two types of formal regulations?
1. content regulations
2. industry structure
What most stringently regulates media industries?
How do stations pay for spectrum?
they do not have to. they obtain a license from the FCC and borrow the spectrum that belongs to the public
Who does the spectrum belong to?
How does the FCC have power over national networks such as NBC?
The FCC does not have power. Rather it has regulatory power over the individual stations that make up the network: affiliates.
What are O&O's?
Owned and operated stations.
What does the FCC regulate?
broadcasting and telephony, lately cable industry
What does the FTC regulate?
Internet and advertising
What is informal self-regulation v formal self regulation?
informal leads industry workers to perceive certain types of content as more or less commercially viable.
formal through creation of self-imposed rules limiting or categorizing content.
Under what circumstances can you legally regulate content?
if it is obscene or indecent.
Under what circumstances can you be granted prior restraint?
IF something is obscene: appeals to the prurient interest in sex, portrays sexual conduct in a patently offensive way, and which, taken as a whole, do not have serious literary artistic political or scientific value.
What is a safe harbor?
where indecent content is allowed because children should be asleep. 10PM-6AM.
What defines indecent?
language or material that depicts in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium sexual or excretory activities or organs.
What are two things that allow consumers to share media files broadly?
digital distribution through peer to peer networks
What is considered fair use?
What do some argue against DRM?
It violates the fair use policy.
What is the Creative Commons movement?
a cc license for their work waive some of their rights in order to more easily allow others to share and build on their work still maintaining some of the rights of copyright.
What do monopoly and anti-trust regulations do?
prevent too much consolidation
What is net neutrality?
the principle that internet service providers do not discriminate among messages or users,
that they pass along all messages at equal speeds
that users be able to access all webpages regardless of their service provider.
What is pro-social regulation?
Restricting the kinds of content the media produce. In hopes of encouraging other kinds of contentex. sesame street
A cultural interventionist...?
Efforts to encourage the production of certain types of media in approach to media regulation
What is possibly one of the most extreme cases of vertical integration?
The Paramount Decree.
What is voice-trafficking?
When radio a radio DJ stationed in San Francisco exports his music to be played in Austin without letting Austin know it's not local. ex. S Dakota emergency alert failure
What is a 'lifeline'?
$10-15 package cable companies provide, but do not advertise.
Why did Congress pass to switch from analog to digital?