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_______, (elevated blood pressure) is a common chronic disese.
Types of hypertension are _______, (idiopathic), and _______, (related to another disease).
High blood pressure results from a variety of known _______ _______.
What is the equation to determine blood pressure?
CO x PVR (cardiac output & peripheral vascular resisance)
The cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and nervous systems all play a role in maintaining _______ _______.
True or False: The (JNC7), Joint National Committee, issues guidelines for the classification of hypertension.
Health history, physical examination, and diagnostic studies are useful for identifying potential _______ _______ _______ and any secondary causes of high blood pressure.
end organ damage
True or False: Lifestyle modifications include weight reduction, moderating alcohol, caffeine, and sodium intake; smoking cessation; stress reduction; and regular exercise.
The _______ diet is rich in grains, fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy products, and is reccommended by the JNC7 for weight reduction.
Individuals should limit caffeine intake to about _______mg/day.
_______ is the single greatest cause of disease and premature death in the U.S.
_______ restriction may be enough to control hypertension in many patients.
The drugs currently available for treatment of _______ work in one of two ways: reducing the SVR, or Decreasing the volume of circulating blood.
Target organ damage that can occur from uncontrolled hypertension includes:
a. headache and dizziness
b. retinopathy and diabetes
c. dyslipidemia and kidney dysfunction
d. kidney dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy
When teaching a client how to control hypertension, the nurse must recognize that:
a. all clients with elevated blood pressure require medication
b. it is not necessary to limit salt intake if taking a diuretic
c. lifestyle modifications are indicated for all clients with hypertension
d. if over weight, the client must achieve a normal weight to lower his/her blood pressure
Renin is secreted into the blood by the kidney structure known as the:
a. distal convoluted tubule
b. juxtaglomerular apparatus
c. loop of henle
d. deproximal convoluted tubule
The secretion of ADH is stimulated by:
a. decreased venous return
d. decreased plasma osmolality
A client with a blood pressure of 200/141mmhg would have:
a. primary hypertension
b. secondary hypertension
c. hypertensive emergency
d. hypertensive urgency
Client teaching for modifiable risk factor reduction should include:
a. dietary factors
d. family history
ACE inhibitors, such as Captopril (Capoten), and Enalapril (Vasotec), decrease both blood pressure and PVR by which mechanism?
a. direct arterial vasodilation
b. blocking the conversion of angiotension I to angiotensin II
c. increasing the fluid excretion at the loop of henle
d. peripheral vasoconstriction and central vasodilation
The interval between the first and second heart sounds is ventricular:
The force that the left ventricle must generate to eject its blood volume is called:
d. Cardiac Index
Pulsus paradoxus is a sign of:
a. Cardiac tamponade
b. Prinzmetal's Angina
c. Acute bacterial endocarditis
d. Left Ventricular Failure
Which medication is a non-nicotene-containing therapy used to support smoking cessation?
Which blood pressure measurement is considered normal according to the JNC7 guidelines?
A cause of secondary hypertension is:
c. patent foramen ovale
d. interstitial cystitis