Anatomy

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Author:
alannaheeres
ID:
104527
Filename:
Anatomy
Updated:
2011-09-26 20:58:01
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Bone Tissue
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Bone Tissue
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  1. Consists of two types of specialized connective tissue
    Cartilage and bone
    Skeletal System
  2. Consists of cells (chondrocytes) embedded in gelatinous matri
    cartilage
  3. What is the matrix of cartilage composed of?
    collagen and elastic fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate
  4. Avascular and lacks nerves but is covered with a layer of dense irregular connective tissueperichondrium (except at articular surfaces)
    Resilient and can endure more stress than loose ordense connective tissu
    cartilage
  5. What are the three types of cartilage?
    • – hyaline cartilage
    • – fibrocartilage
    • – elastic cartilag
  6. Most abundant type, has fine collagen fibers
    Chondrocytes sit in spaces called lacuna
    Hyaline Cartilage
  7. No blood vessels or nerves so repair is very slow Reduces friction at joints as articular cartilag
    Hyaline Cartilage
  8. Many more collagen fibers causes rigidity & stiffness
    Strongest type of cartilage (intervertebral discs
    Fibrocartilage
  9. Elastic fibers help maintain shape after deformations
    Ear, nose, epiglotti
    Elastic Cartilage
  10. What are the 5 functions of bone tissue?
    • 1. Supporting & protecting soft tissues
    • 2. Attachment site for muscles making movement possible
    • 3. Storage of minerals, calcium & phosphate -- mineral homeostasis
    • 4. Blood cell production occurs in red bone marrow (hemopoiesis)
    • 5. Energy storage in yellow bone marrow
  11. What are the four bone classifications according to shape?
    • 1. Long (femur)
    • 2. Short (carpal bones of the wrist)
    • 3. Flat (skull)
    • 4. Irregular (vertebrae)
  12. Anatomy: shaft
    Diaphysis
  13. Anatomy: end of a long bone
    Epiphysis
  14. Anatomy: growth plate region
    Metaphysis
  15. What does articular cartilage do over joint surfaces?
    Acts as friction & shock absorber
  16. Anatomy: marrow cavity
    Medullary cavity
  17. Lining of marrow cavity
    Endosteum
  18. Tough membrane covering bone but not the cartilage
    Periosteum
  19. What is the fibrous layer of the bone composed of?
    Dense irregular CT
  20. Bone cells & blood vessels that nourish or help with repair
    osteogenic layer
  21. Looks like solid hard layer of bone
    Makes up the shaft of long bones and the external layer of all bones
    Resists stresses produced by weight and movemen
    Compact (Dense) Bone
  22. Latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae oriented along lines of stress
    Spongy Bone
  23. What are the spaces in between struts of spongy bone filled with?
    Red marrow where blood cells develop
  24. What type of bone is found:
    In the ends of long bones and inside flat bones such as the hipbones, sternum, sides of skull, and ribs.
    Spongy Bone
  25. A type of connective tissue as seen by widely spaced cells separated by matri
    Bone tissue
  26. What is the matrix of bone tissue composed of?
    Matrix of collagen fibers & crystalizedmineral salts called hydroxyapatite(includes calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate)
  27. How many types of cells are in bone tissue?
    4
  28. Undifferentiated cells
    Can divide to replace themselves & can become osteoblasts
    Found in inner layer of periosteum and endosteum
    Osteogenic cells
  29. Form matrix & collagen fibers but can’t divide
    Osteoblasts
  30. Mature cells that no longer secrete matri
    Osteocytes
  31. Huge cells from fused monocytes (WBC)
    Function in bone resorption at surfaces such as endosteum
    Osteoclasts
  32. Concentric rings (lamellae) of calcified matrix surrounding a vertically oriented blood vessel (Central Canal or Haversian Canal)
    Osteon
  33. Found in spaces called lacunae
    Osteocytes
  34. Communicate through canaliculi filled with extracellular fluid that connect one cell to the next cell
    Osteocytes
  35. Represent older osteons that have been partially removed during tissue remodeling
    Interstitial lamellae
  36. Radioactive tracer is given intravenously
    Amount of uptake is related to amount of blood flow to the bone
    Bone Scan
  37. Areas of increased metabolic activity that may indicate cancer, abnormal healing or growth
    Hot Spots
  38. Indicate decreased metabolism of osteoporosis, bone infection
    Cold Spots
  39. All embryonic connective tissue begins as __________.
    mesenchyme
  40. Formation of bone directly from mesenchymal cells
    Intramembranous bone formation
  41. Formation of bone within hyaline cartilage
    Endochondral ossification
  42. Intramembranous Bone Formation:
    Mesenchymal cells become osteoprogenitor cells then ________.
    osteoblasts
  43. Intramembranous Bone Formation:
    Surround themselves with matrix to become osteocytes.
    Osteoblasts
  44. Intramembranous Bone Formation:
    Calcifies into trabeculae with spaces holding red bone marrow
    Matrix
  45. Intramembranous Bone Formation:
    Superficial layers of spongy bone are replaced with _____________.
    Compact bone
  46. Endochondral Bone Formation:
    ___________ cells form a cartilage model of the bone during development
    Mesenchymal
  47. Endochondral Bone Formation:
    Penetrates center of cartilage mode
    nutrient artery
  48. Endochondral Bone Formation:
    Brings osteoblasts and osteoclasts to center of cartilage mode
    periosteal bud
  49. Endochondral Bone Formation:
    Deposit bone matrix over calcified cartilage forming spongy bone trabecula
    Osteoblasts
  50. Two ways that bone growths in length:
    • Cartilage cells are produced by mitosis on epiphyseal side of plate
    • Cartilage cells are destroyed and replaced by bone on diaphyseal side of plate
  51. At what age do epiphyseal plates close.– cartilage cells stop dividing and bone replaces the cartilage (epiphyseal line
    Between ages 18-21
  52. Occurs as osteoblasts from the periosteum add new bone tissue
    And as osteoclasts from the endosteumresorb bone tissu
    Bone Growth in Width
  53. True or false: Bones have a rich blood supply
    True
  54. Is mainly to blood vessels (vasomotor fibers) and sensory fibers in the periosteum (supply pain)
    Nerve supply
  55. What are the two principle effects of aging on bone tissue?
    • Loss of bone mass results from the loss of calcium and other minerals from bone extracellular matrix (demineralization)
    • Brittleness occurs as the production of collagen fibers (which give bone tissue its tensile strength) slows

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