Earth Science test 1

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Earth Science test 1
2011-09-26 21:11:31
earth science

Eath sci DCC test 1
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  1. Cation
    positive charge
  2. Anion
    negative charge
  3. Ionic bond
    one or more valance electrons transfered
  4. Covalent Bond
    one or more valence electrons shared
  5. Metallic bond
    covalent bond found in metals
  6. minerals are:
    • Naturally occuring
    • inorganic
    • have crystal structure
    • definite chemical composition
  7. Mineral properties:
    • color
    • streak
    • hardness
    • luster
    • crystal form
    • cleavage
    • fracture
    • specific gravity
  8. nonferromagmesian
    light silicates
  9. ferromagmesian
    dark silicates
  10. Aphanitic
    fine grained
  11. phaneritic
    coarse grained
  12. porphyritic
    2 crystal sizes larger one phenocrysts smaller ground mass
  13. pegmatitic
    extremely coarse grained
  14. assimilation
    incorporatinbg clocks of country rock with magma to change composition of rock
  15. mixing
    2 types of magma form rock
  16. plutons
    structures that result from emplacement of igneous material below earth's surface
  17. xenolith
    inclusion of unmelted country rock in an igneous pluton
  18. Nature of plutons: differentiated by
    • shape: tabular=flat
    • massive

    orientation: Discordant- cuts across structures

    concordant- parallel to structures
  19. types of plutons
    • dikes-discordant
    • sill-concordant
    • laccolith-both
    • batholith-discordant
  20. sedimantary rocks contain:
    • fossils
    • info of past
    • resources (coal, iron, aluminum, salt)
  21. Detrital (sed)
    • Sediment broken down by weathering then compacted,cemented together
    • (colglomerate, sandstone,shale)
  22. chemical (sed)
    precipitated by chemical or biochemical process (limstones(coquina,chalk) dolostone, rock salt)
  23. Marine deposital environments
    • shallow marine
    • deep marine
    • reef
  24. shoreline depositla environments
    • beach
    • barrier island
    • laggon
    • delta
    • tidal flat
  25. soil
    both inorganic and organic material , water, air.
  26. Soil forming factors
    • parent material
    • time
    • climate(hot better than cold)
    • plat and animal activity
    • slope topography
  27. mass wasting
    downhill movement of rock and unconsolidated debris under influence of gravity
  28. mass wasting types:
    • slides-movent of debris and rock along slip surface (landslide)
    • flows- movement of debris with aid of water (mudflow)
    • falls- movement of debris through air (rock off cliff)
  29. gradient
    slope of stream
  30. channel characteristics
    • shape
    • size
    • roughness of channel
  31. discharge
    volume flow (measured in cubic feet/second)
  32. dissolved load
    chemicals in solution
  33. suspended load
    particles carried by water
  34. bed load
    material carried along streams bottom
  35. water table
    upper limit of zone of saturation within ground water
  36. competence
    ability to carry load based on particle size and stream velocity
  37. capacity
    max stream load
  38. recharge zones
    surface water infiltrates into groundwater
  39. discharge zones
    groundwater feeds surface water
  40. capillary fringe
    groundwater is lifted above water table by capillary action
  41. zone of aeration
    unconsolidated sediments and or bedrock above the water table inluding capillary fringe
  42. zone of saturation
    water table and below
  43. porosity
    void spaces within ground
  44. permeability
    ability of unconsolidated sediments or bedrock to transmit water through void spaces
  45. aquifer
    volume of saturated materials below water table capable of sustaining a useful supply of groundwater
  46. aquiclude
    impermeable layer that prevents flow of groundwater
  47. perched water table
    water table that is over an aquiclude
  48. spring
    where water table reaches earth's surface
  49. wells
    dug into aquifer to remove ground water
  50. drawdown
    water level in a well resulting from pumping
  51. cone of depression
    horizontal area around a well where water table is effected by pumping
  52. effluent stream
    gain flow from groundwater discharge
  53. influent stream
    looses flow to recharge ground water
  54. overdraft
    mining of ground water
  55. subsidence
    sinking of land surface over aquifer
  56. salt water intrusion
    slatwater invading over pumped nearshore aquifers
  57. conservation:
    • improve irrigation technology
    • line canals
    • use crops that need less water
    • low flow toliets
    • fix leaky pipes
  58. functions of wetlands:
    • ground water recharge zones
    • natural filters to clean water
    • natural sediment traps
    • store flood waters
    • provide habitat for wildlife
  59. Ground water action->
    may result in formation of caves (stalactites, stalagmites, columns, flowstones)
  60. Karst topography
    • sinkholes
    • sinking streams
    • caves
    • (depressional formations)