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2011-09-27 23:17:59
chapter 14 15

Chapter 14 and 15
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  1. afferent
    • carry or move inward or toward a central structure
    • -refers to arteries, veins, lymphatic vessicles, and nerves
  2. blood-brain barrier
    protective mechanism that blocks specific substances found in the blood stream from entering delicate brain tissue
  3. central nervous system
    network of tissue found in the brain and spinal cord
  4. efferent
    carry or move away from a central structure
  5. nerve fiber
    projection of a neuron, especially the axon that transmits impulses
  6. neurilemma
    • additional sheath external to myelin that is formed by Schwann cells and found only in the PNS
    • because neurilemma does not disintegrate after injury to the axon its enclosed hollow tube provides an avenue for regeneration of injured axons
  7. ventricle
    chamber or cavity of an organ that receives or holds a fluid
  8. brain
    • center for thought and emotion, interpretation of sensory stimuli, and coordinatino of body functions
    • part of CNS
  9. spinal cord
    • part of CNS
    • main pathway for transmission of info between the brain and body
  10. cranial nerves
    • part of PNS
    • includes 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the base of the skull and may act in either motor capacity, sensory capacity, or both
  11. spinal nerves
    • part of PNS
    • includes 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spine and act in both motor and sensory capacities
  12. actions regulated by sympathetic division of PNS
    • dilates pupils
    • inhibits flow of saliva
    • relaxes bronchi
    • accelerates heart rate
    • slows digestive activities
    • constricts visceral blood vessels
  13. actions regulated by parasympathetic division of PNS
    • constricts pupils
    • increases flow of saliva
    • constricts bronchi
    • slows heart rate
    • accelerates digestive activities
    • dilates visceral blood vessels
  14. connection between blood, lymph, and immune system and nervous system
    • nervous system identifies changes in blood and lymph composition and provides the stimuli to maintain homeostasis
    • nervous system identifies pathologically altered tissue and assists teh immune system in containing injury and promoting healing
  15. connection between cardiovascular system and nervous system
    • nervous tissue, esp. the conduction system of the heart, transmits a contraction impulse
    • nervous system identifies pressure changes on vascular walls and responds to regulate blood pressure
  16. connection between digestive system and nervous system
    • nervous stimuli of digestive organs propel food by peristalsis
    • nerve receptors in the lower colon identify the need to defecate
  17. connection between endocrine system and nervous system
    the hypothalamus regulates hormone production
  18. connection between female reproductive system and nervous system?
    • nervous system transmits contraction impulses needed for delivery of a fetus
    • nervous system provides stimuli needed for lactation
    • nervous system regulates hormones needed for the menstrual cycle
  19. connection between genitourinary system and nervous system?
    • nervous tissue in reproductive organs receives pleasure responses
    • nervous system responds to pressure changes in bladder walls that indicate the need to void
    • nervous system stimulates the thirst reflex when body fluid levels are low
  20. connection between integumentary system and nervous system?
    • sensory nervous system supplies receptors in the skin that respond to environmental stimuli
    • autonomic nervous system regulates body temp by controlling shivering and sweating
  21. connection between musculoskeletal system and nervous system?
    • nervous system provides impulses for contraction resulting in voluntary and involuntary movement of muscles
    • autonomic nervous tissue responds to postional changes
  22. connection between respiratory system and nervous system?
    • nervous system stimulates muscle contractions that create pressure changes necessary for ventilation
    • nervous system regulates rate and depth of breathing
  23. craniomalacia
    softening of the cranium
  24. dendroid
    resmebling a branching tree
  25. suffix: oid
  26. -cele
    swelling, hernia
  27. encephalocele
    herniation of the brain
  28. gangli/o
    ganglion (knot or knotlike mass)
  29. gangliectomy
    excision of a ganglion
  30. bradykinesia
    condition of slow movement
  31. leptomeningopathy
    disease of teh meninges
  32. lex/o
    word, phrase
  33. dyslexia
    difficulty using words
  34. poliomyelitis
    inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
  35. narc/o
    stupor; numbness; sleep
  36. narcotic
    relating to sleep
  37. radicul/o
    nerve root
  38. radicul/algia
    pain in the nerve root
  39. sthen/o
  40. hypersthenia
    condition of excessive strength
  41. thalamotomy
    incision of the thalamus
  42. theco/o
    sheath (usually refers to meninges)
  43. intrathecal
    pertaining to the space within a sheath
  44. ton/o
  45. dystonia
    bad or poor (muscle) tone
  46. synalgia
    joined (referred) pain
  47. -asthenia
    weakness, debility
  48. -esthesia
  49. myasthenia
    muscle weakness
  50. hyperesthesia
    increased feeling
  51. -lepsy
  52. narcolepsy
    seizure of sleep
  53. -paresis
    partial paralysis
  54. hemiparesis
    paralysis of 1/2 of the body; aka hemiplegia
  55. -plegia
  56. -taxia
    order, coordination
  57. ataxia
    without coordination
  58. pachy-
  59. pachymeningitis
    infloammation of the dura mater
  60. mening
    meninges (membranes covering brain and spinal cord)
  61. paraplegia
    paralysis of lower body and limbs
  62. synalgia
    referred pain
  63. affective disorder
    psychological disorder in which the major characteristic is an abnormal mood, usually mania or depression
  64. anxiety
    • psychological "worry" disorder characterized by excessive pondering or thinking "what if..."
    • feelings of worry, dread, lack of energy, and loss of interest inlife are commmon signs associated with anxiety
  65. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    disorder affecting children and adults characrerized by impulsiveness, overactivity, and the inability to remain focused on a task
  66. bipolar disorder
    mental disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, emotion, energy, and ability to functino; also called manic-depressive illness
  67. depression
    mood disorder associated with sadness, despair, discouragement, and commonly feelings of low self-esteem, guilt, and withdrawl
  68. mania
    mood disorder characterized by mental and physical hyperactivity, disorganized behavior, and excessively elevated mood
  69. panic attack
    • suddent, intense, overwhelming feeling of fear that comes without warning and is not attributable to any immediate danger
    • a key symptom of a panic attack is the fear of its recurrence
  70. agnosia
    inability to comprehend autidotry, visual, spatial, olfactory, or other sensations even though the sensory sphere is intact
  71. asthenia
    weakness, debility, or loss of strength
  72. ataxia
    lack of muscle coordinatin in teh execution of voluntary movement
  73. aura
    premonitory awarenes of an approaching physical or mental disorder; peculiar sensation that precedes seizures
  74. autism
    developmental disorder characterized by extreme withdrawal and an abnormal absorption in fantasy, usually acompanied by an inability to communicate even on a basic level
  75. closed head trauma
    injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed
  76. coma
    abnormally deep unconciousness with absence of voluntary response to stimuli
  77. concussion
    injury to the brain, occasionially with transient loss of consciousness as a result of injury or trauma to the head
  78. convulsion
    any sudden and violent contraction of one or more muscles
  79. dementia
    broad term that refers to cognitive devicit, including memory impairment
  80. dyslexia
    inability to learn and process written language despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability and exposure
  81. Guillain-Barre syndrome
    autoimune condition that causes acute imflammation of the peripheral nerves in which myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness
  82. herpes zoster
    painful, acute infectious disease of the posterior root ganglia of only a few segments of the spinal or cranial nerves, also called shingles
  83. Huntington chorea
    inherited disease of the CNS characterized by quick, involuntary movements, speech disturbances, and mental deterioration
  84. hydrocephalus
    accumulation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain, causing increased intracranial pressure (ICP), thinning of brain tissue, and separation of cranial bones
  85. lethargy
    abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli; sluggishness
  86. neurosis
    nonpsychotic mental illness that triggers feelings of distress and anxiety and impairs normal behavior
  87. palsy
    paralysis, usually partial, and commonly characterized by weakness and shaking or uncontrolled tremor
  88. Bell palsy
    acial paralysis caused by a functional disorder of the seventh cranial nerve, associated with herpes virus
  89. cerebral palsy
    type of paralysis that effects movement and body position and sometimes speech and learning disability
  90. psychosis
    major emotional disorder in which contact with reality is lost to the point that the individual is incapable of meetnig challenges of daily life
  91. spina bifida
    defect in which the neural tube (tissue that forms the brain and spinal cord in the fetus) fails to close during embryogensis
  92. myelomeningocele
    most severe form of spina bifida in which the spinal cord and meninges protrude through the spine
  93. occulta
    form of spina bifida in which one or more vertebrae are malformed and the spinal cord is covered with a layer of skin
  94. parasthesia
    sensation of numbness, prickling, tingling, or heightened sensitivity
  95. poliomyelitis
    inflammation of the gray mater of the spinal cord caused by a virus, commonly resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
  96. Reye syndrome
    acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of teh brain, liver and possibly, the pancreas, heart, kindey spleen, and lymph nodes
  97. sciatica
    severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve felt at the base of the spine, down the thigh, and radiating down the leg due to ca conmpressed nerve
  98. syncope
    temporary loss of conciousness due to teh sudden delcine of blood flow to the brain, also called fainting
  99. tonic-clonic seizure
    general type of seizure characterized by loss of consciousness and stiffening of the body (tonic phas) followed by rhythmic, jerking movements (clonic phase)
  100. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    temporary interference with blood supply ot hte brain lasting from a fwe minutes to a few hours
  101. electroencephalography (EEG)
    • recording of electrical activity in the brain, whose cells emit distinct patterns of rhythmic electrical impulses
    • different wave patterns are associated with normal and abnormal waking and sleeping patterns
  102. electromyography (EMG)
    recording of electrical signals (Action potentials) that occur in a muscle when it is at rest and during contraction to asses nerve damage
  103. lumbar puncture
    needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, introduce anesthetic agents in to the spinal canal, or remove fluid to allow other fluids (such as radiopaque substances) to be injected; aka spinal puncture or spinal tap
  104. nerve condition velocity (NCV)
    test that measures the speed at which impulses travel through a nerve
  105. cerebrospinal fluid analysis
    series of chemical, microscopic, and microbial tests used to diagnose disorders of the CNS, including viral and bacterial infections, tumors, and hemmorage
  106. angiography
    • radiography of the blood vessels after intro of a contrast medium
    • visualize vascular abnormalities
  107. cerebral angiography
    angiogaphy of blood vessels of the brani after injection of a contrast medium; aka cerebral arteriography
  108. computed tomography (CT)
    imaging technique ahcieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and mesuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
  109. myelography
    diagnostic radiological exam of the spinal canal, nerve roots, and spinal cord after injectin of contrast medium into the spinal canal
  110. positron emission tomography
    • scan using ct to record the positrons emitted from a radiopharmaceutical and produce a cross-sectional image of meabolic activity in body tissues to determine the pressence of a disease
    • useful to diagnose disorders involving abnormal tissue metabolism
  111. ultrasonography (US)
    imaging procedure using high -frequency sound waves that display the reflected echos on a monitor
  112. echoencephalography
    ultrasound technique used to study intracranial structures of the bain and conditions that case a shift in the midline structures of the brain
  113. cryosurgery
    technique that exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold and destroy it
  114. stereotaxic radiosurgery
    precise method of locating and destroying sharply circumscribed lesions on specific, tiny areas of pathological tissue in deep-seated structures of CNS
  115. thalamotomy
    partial destruction of the thalamus to treat intractabl pain, involuntary movements, or emotional disturbances
  116. tractomy
    transectino of a nerve tract in the brainstem or spinal cord
  117. vagotomy
    interruption of the function of the vagus nerve to relieve peptic ulcer
  118. gernal anesthetics
    • act upon the brain to produce complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness
    • propofol
  119. local aneshtesia
    • act upon nerves or nerve tracts to affect local area only
    • procaine, lidocaine
  120. anticonvolusants
    • prevent uncontrolled neruon activity assoc with seizures by altering electrical transmission along neurons or altering the chemical composition of neruotransmitters; aka antiepileptics
    • carbamazepine, valproate
  121. antiparkinsonian angents
    • control tremors and muscle rigidity assoc with Parkinson disease by increasing dopamine to the brain
    • levodopa, levodopa/carvidopa
  122. antipsychotics
    • treat psychosis, paranoia, and schizoprenai by altering chemicals in the brain, including the limbic system
    • clozapine, risperidone
  123. antidepressants
    • treat multiple symptoms of depressin by increasing levels of specific NT
    • paroxetine, fluoxetine
  124. hypnotics
    • depress CNS functions, promote sedation and sleep, and relieve agitation, anxiousness, and reslessness
    • seconal, temazepam
  125. psychostimulants
    • reduce impulsive behavior by increasing the level or NT
    • dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate
  126. ADAD
    Alzheimer disease
  127. ALS
    amyotrohic lateral sclerosis aka Lou Gehrig disease
  128. BEAM
    brain electrical activity mapping
  129. CP
    cerebral palsy
  130. CSF
    cerebral spinal fluid
  131. CVA
    cereralvascular accident
  132. emg
  133. icp
    intracranial pressure
  134. loc
    loss of conciousness
  135. lp
    lumbar puncture
  136. mra
    magnetic resonsnace angiogram
  137. mri
    magnetic resonance imaging
  138. ms
    musculoskeletal, multiple sclerosis, mental status, mitral stenosis
  139. ncv
    nerve conduction velocity
  140. sns
    sympathetic nervous system
  141. tia
    transient ischemic attack
  142. accommodation
    adjustment of the eye for various distances so that images fall on the retina of the eye
  143. acuity
    clearness or sharpness of a sensory function
  144. adnexa
    tissues or structures in the body adjacent to or near a related structure
  145. articulating
    being loosely joined or connected together to allow motion between the parts
  146. humor
    any fluid or semifluid of the body
  147. labyrinth
    • series of intricate comunicating passages
    • -labryinth of ear includes cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibule
  148. opaque
    substance that does not allow the passage of light; not transparent
  149. perilymph
    fluid that very closely resembles spinal fluid but found in the cochlea
  150. photopigment
    light sensitive pigment in the retinal cones and rods that absorbs light and initiates the visual process; also called visual pigment
  151. refractive
    ability to bend light rays as they pass frmo one medium to another
  152. tunic
    layer or coat of tissue; also called membrane layer
  153. ambly/o
    dull, dim
  154. blephar/o
  155. core/o
  156. pupill/o
  157. cycl/o
    ciliary body of eye; circular; cycle
  158. dacry/o
    tear; lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)
  159. amblyopia
    dimness of vision
  160. -opia
  161. blepharoptosis
    prolapse or downward displacement of the eyelid
  162. -ptosis
    prolapse, downward displacement
  163. choroidopathy
    disease of teh choroid
  164. conjunctival
    pertaining to the conjunctiva
  165. coreometer
    instrument for measuring the pupil
  166. pupillography
    process of recording teh movement of the pupil
  167. corneal
    pertaining to the cornea
  168. cycloplegia
    paralysis of the ciliary body
  169. -plegia
  170. dacryoma
    tumorlike swelling of the lacrimal duct
  171. lacrimoctomy
    incision of the lacrimal duct or sac
  172. -tomy
  173. dacryocyst/o
    lacrimial sac
  174. glauc/o
  175. goni/o
  176. irid/o
  177. kerat/o
    horny tissue; hard; cornea
  178. ocul/o
  179. ophthalm/o
  180. opt/o
    eye, vision
  181. optic/o
    eye, vision
  182. phac/o
  183. phot/o
  184. presby/o
    old age
  185. dacryocystoptosis
    prolapse of the lacrimal sac
  186. glaucoma
    gray tumor
  187. gonioscopy
    visual examinatino of the irideocorneal angle
  188. iridoplegia
    paralysis of the sphincter of the iris
  189. keratotomy
    incision of the cornea
  190. oculomycosis
    fungal infectin of the eye or its parts
  191. myc
  192. opthalmologist
    specialist in teh study of eye
  193. optometry
    act of measuring vision
  194. phacocele
    herniatino (displacement) of the lens nito the interior chamber of the eye
  195. photophobia
    abnormal fear of light
  196. presbyopia
    poor vision associated with old age
  197. retin/o
  198. scler/o
    hardening; sclera (white of eye)
  199. scot/o
  200. vitr/o
    vitreous body (of eye)
  201. labyrinth/o
    labyrinth (inner ear)
  202. mastoid/o
    mastoid process
  203. ot/o
  204. salping/o
    tubes (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
  205. myring/o
    tympanic membrane (ear drum)
  206. tympan/o
    tympanic membrane (eardrum)
  207. retinosis
    abnormal condition of the retina
  208. scleromalacia
    softening fo the sclera
  209. scotoma
    dark, tumorlike spot
  210. vitrectomy
    removal of the contents of teh vitreous chamber
  211. audiometer
    instrument to measure hearing
  212. labryinthotomy
    incision of the labyrinth
  213. mastoidectomy
    removal of the mastoid process
  214. otopyorrhea
    discharge of pus from the ear
  215. salpingoscope
    instrument to examine the eustachian tubes
  216. stapedectomy
    excision of the stapes
  217. myringomycosis
    abnormal condition due to fungal infectin of the typanic membrane
  218. tympanostomy
    forming an opening ni the tympanic membrane
  219. -acusia
  220. -cusis
  221. -opia
  222. -opsia
  223. -tropia
  224. exo-
    outside, outward
  225. anacusia
    not hearing (deafness)
  226. presbycusis
    hearing loss associated with old age
  227. diplopia
    double vision
  228. heteropsia
    inequality of vision in the two eyes
  229. esotropia
    turning inward of the eyes; also called convergent strabismus or crossed eyes
  230. eso
  231. exotropia
    abnormal turning outward of one or both eyes; also caled divergent stravismus
  232. -tropia
  233. hyperopia
    escess (farsighted) vision
  234. achromatopsia
    severe congenital deficiency in color perception; aka complete color blindness
  235. chalazion
    small, hard tumor developing on the eyelid, somewhat similar to a sebaceous cyst
  236. conjunctivitis
    inflammatino of the conjunctiva with vascular congestion, producing a red or pink eye; may be secondary to viral, bacterial, or fungal infections or allergy
  237. convergence
    medial movement of the two eyballs so that they are both directed at the object being viewed
  238. diopter (D)
    • measurement of refractive error
    • when D is negative, an eye has myopia
    • when D is positive eye with hyperopia
  239. ectropion
    eversion, or outward turning, of the edge of the lower eyelid
  240. emmetropia (Em)
    • state of normal vision
    • when eye is at rest, the image is focused directly on the retina
  241. entropion
    inversion or inward turning of the edge of the lower eyelid
  242. epiphora
    abnormal overflow of tears
  243. exophthalmos
    • protrusion of one or both eyeballs
    • common causes include hyperactive thyroid, trauma and tumor
  244. hordeolum
    localized, circumscribed, inflammatory swelling of one of the several sebaceous glands of the eyelid, generally caused by a bacterial infection; aka stye
  245. metamorphopsia
    visual distortion of objects
  246. nyctalopia
    impaired vision in dim light; also called night bilndness
  247. nystagmus
    involuntary eye movements that appear jerky and may reduce vision or be associated with other, more serious conditions that limit vision
  248. papilledema
    edema and hyperemia of the optic disc usually associated with increased intracranial pressure; aka choked disc
  249. photophobia
    unusual intolerance nad sensitivity to light
  250. presbyopia
    loss of accommodation of teh crystalline lens associated with the aging process
  251. retinopathy
    any disorder of retinal blood vessels
  252. trachoma
    chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis common in the southwestern US that typically leads to blindness
  253. visual field
    area within which objects may be seen when teh eye is in a fixed position
  254. anacusis
    comlete deafness; aka anacusia
  255. conduction impairment
    blocking of sound waves as they pass through the external and middle ear (conduction pathway)
  256. labyrinthitis
    inflammatino of the inner ear that usually results from an acute febrile process
  257. Meniere disease
    disorder of teh labyrinth that leads to progressive loss of hearing
  258. noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL)
    condition caused by the destruction of hair cells, the organs responsible for hearing, caused by sounds that are "too long, too loud, or too close"
  259. otitis externa
    infection of the external auditory canal
  260. presbyacusis
    impairment of hearing resulting from old age; also called presbyacusia
  261. pressure-equalizing (PE) tubes
    tubes that are inserted through the typanic membrane, commonly to treat chronic otitis media; aka tympanostomy tubes or ventilation tubes
  262. tinnitus
    perception of ringing, hissing, or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present
  263. vertigo
    hallucination of movement, or a feeling of spinning or dizziness
  264. audiometry
    measurement of hearing acuity at various sound wave frequencies
  265. caloric stimulation test
    test that uses different water temps to assess teh vestibular portion of the nerve of teh inner ear (acoustic nerve) to determine if nerve dammage is teh cause of vertigo
  266. electronystagmography (ENG)
    method of assessing and recording eye movements by measuring the electrical activity of the extraocular muscels
  267. ophthalmodynamometry
    measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels
  268. tonometry
    evaluation of intraocular pressure by measuring the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force
  269. visual acuity (VA) test
    part of an eye examinztion that determines the smallest letters that can be read on a standardized chart at a distance of 20 feet
  270. gonioscopy
    examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye to determine ocular motility and rotation and diagnose and manage glaucoma
  271. ophthalmoscopy
    visual examinatin of the interior of the eye using a hand-held instrument called an ophthalmoscope, which has various adjustable lenses for magnificatino and a light source to illuminate the interior of the eye
  272. otoscopy
    visual exam of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
  273. pneumatic
    procedure that assess the ability of the tympanic membrane to move in response to a change in air pressure
  274. retinoscopy
    evaluation of refractive errors of the eye by projecting a light into the eys and determining the movemnet of reflected light rays
  275. dacryocystography
    radiographic imaging procedures of the nasolacrimal (tear) glands and ducts
  276. fluorescein angiography
    assesses blood vessels and their leakage in and beneath the retina after injection of fluorescein dye. the dye circulates while photographs of the vessels within the eye are obtained
  277. orthoptic training
    exerceises intended to improve eye movemnets or visual tracking that use training glasses, prism glasses, or tinted or colored lenses
  278. blepharoplasty
    cosmetic surgery that removes fatty tissue from above nd below the eyes that commonly form as a result of the aging process or excessive exposure to the sun
  279. cochlear implant
    artificial hearing device that produces useful hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear; aka bionic ear
  280. cyclodialysis
    formation of an opening between the antior chaber and the suprachoroidal space for the draining of aqueous humor in glaucoma
  281. enulceation
    removal of the eyball from the orbit
  282. evisceration
    removal of the contents of the eye while leaving the sclera and cornea intact
  283. mastoid antrotomy
    surgical opening of a cavity within the mastoid process
  284. otoplasty
    corrective surgery for a deformed or excessively large or small pinna
  285. phacoemulsification
    method of treating cataracts by using ultrasonic waves to disintegrate a cloudy lens, which is then aspirated and removed
  286. radial keratotomy (RK)
    incision of the cornea for treament of nearsightedness or astigmatism
  287. sclerostomy
    surgical formation of an opening in the sclera
  288. tuning fork test
    method use to evaluate sound conduction using a vibrating tuning fork
  289. Rinne
    tuning fork test that evalates bone cnoduction (BC) versus air conduction (AC) of sound
  290. weber
    tuning fork test that evaluates bond conduction of sound in both ears at the same time
  291. tympanoplasty
    reconstruction of the eardrum, commonly due to perforation; aka myringoplasty
  292. Eye antibiotics, ophtalmic
    • inhibit growth of microorganisms that infect the eye
    • dispensed as topical ointments and solutions to treat various bacterial eye infections such as conjunctivitis (pink eye)
    • erythromycin base
  293. antiglaucoma agents
    • decrease aqueous humor production by constricting the pupil to open the angle between the iris and cornea
    • timolol (Betimol) , acetazolamide (Diamox)
  294. mydriatics
    • drugs that disrupt parasympathetic nerve supply to the eye or stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, causing the pupil to dilate
    • commonly used to dilate the pupil to treat inflammatory conditions or in preparation for internal examinations of the eye
    • atropine sulfate
  295. ophthalmic decongestants
    • constrict the small arterioles of the eye, decreasing redness and relieving conjunctival congestion
    • otc products that temporarily relieve the itching and minor irritation commonly associated with allergy
    • tetrahydrozoline (Murine, Visine)
  296. ophthalmic moisturizers
    • sooth dry eyes due to environmental irritants and some allergens
    • administered topically and may also be used to facilitate ophthalmoscopic examination in gonioscopy and ophthalmoscopy
    • buffered isotonic solutions (Akwa Tears, moisure eyes)
  297. ear antiemetics
    • treat and prevent nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and vertigo by reducing the sensitivity of the inner ear to motion or inhibiting stimli from reaching the part of the brain that triggers nausea and vomiting
    • meclizine (Antrizine, Bonine, Meni-D)
  298. otic analgesics
    • provide temporary relief from pain and inflammation assoc with otic disorders
    • may be perscribed for otitis media, otitis externa, and swimmer's ear. some are also wax emulsifiers
    • antipyrine and benzocaine (Allergan Ear Drops, A/B Otic)
  299. wax emulsifiers
    • loosen and help remove impacted cerumen (ear wax)
    • carbamide peroxide (Debrox drops, Murine ear drops)
  300. acc
  301. ARMD, AMD
    age-regulated macular degeneration
  302. Ast
  303. CK
    conductive keratoplasty; creatine kinase (cardiac enzyme)
  304. D
    diopter (lens strength)
  305. Em
  306. EOM
    extraocular movement
  307. IOL
    intraocular lens
  308. IOP
    intraocular pressure
  309. LASIK
    laser-assisted in sitsu keratomileusis
  310. mix astig
    mixed astigmatism
  311. Myop
    myopia (near sightedness)
  312. AC
    air conduction
  313. AD
    right ear
  314. OD
    right ear
  315. O.D.
    doctor of optometry
  316. OS
    left eye
  317. OU
    both eyes
  318. PERRLA
    pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation
  319. RK
    radial keratotomy
  320. SICS
    small incision cataract surgery
  321. SLE
    slit lamp examination; systemic lupus erythematosus
  322. ST
  323. VA
    visual acuity
  324. VF
    visual field
  325. XT
  326. AS
    left ear
  327. AU
    both ears
  328. BC
    bond conduction
  329. NIHL
    noise-indced hearing loss
  330. OM
    otitis media
  331. PE
    physical exammination; pulmonary embolism; pressureequalizing tube
  332. URI
    upper respiratory infection