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the way the artist makes up the picture, how the artist places the human figures, objects, buildings, landscape-all of these things placed in space in a setting each in relationship to each other even though the actual surface
that the artist paints or draws on is a flat two-dimensional surface
- How the artist composes (organizes/arranges) all the elements in a picture. Placement of figures and objects in relation to one another in a physical setting.
- Do they all look like they are flat and two-dimensional, that is, they don't seem to have a sense of mass, volume, solidity, depth or distance, or receding spaces.
- Are they placed on in relationship to the other to give a three-dimensional quality as they would look in the "real or natural three-dimensional world" or
- -Are they flat with no sense of mass, solidity, volume, or spatial distance or depth in between and among all the figures and objects etc.?
- This is referred to in the textbook as "spatial relationship" of all the figures, objects, buildings, landscape in the setting.
- the actual, flat surface that the artist makes a picture composition on: (canvas, paper, wall etc.) On the actual, flat surface called the "picture plane", the artist can cause a sense of three-dimensional, (realthree-dimensional appearance of the natural or real world) by making the flat surface seem as if it has behind it a:
- -Middle ground
Pictorial depth (spatial recession)
- - refers to how the artist causes the illusion or makes things seem to have depth or distance as if a in three-dimensional world
- - how does the artist use composition to make a picture or image? Does it have a flat two-dimensional look or has the artist used specific techniques or tool to cause the illusion of three- dimensionality?
In a three-dimensional looking picture:
- -the artist knows how to cause the sense of depth or recession by using techniques or pictorial devices to cause the "illusion" of depicting "recession in space" or ,in other words, how the artist makes things look like they are up front (foreground), in the middle of the picture(middle ground), or in a distance in the back (background).
- -Linear and Atmospheric perspective became both highly developed and utilized in Renaissance Italy.
partially covered elements are meant to be seen as located behind those covering them
successively smaller elements are perceived as being progressively farther away than the largest ones
stacks elements, with the higher ones intended to be perceived as deeper in space
objects in the far distance (often in bluish-gray hues) have less clarith than nearer objects. The sky becomes paler as it approaches the horizon.
divergent perspective (reverse perspective)
forms widen slightly and imaginary lines called orthogonals diverge as they recede in space.
takes the opposite approach from divergent perspective. forms become narrower and orthogonals converge the farther they are from the viewer, approxiimating the optical experience of spatial recession.
linear perspective (scientific, mathematical, one-point and Renaissance perspective)
a rationalization or standardization of intuitive perspective that was developed in 15th century Italy. It uses mathematical formulas to construct images in which all elements are shaped by, or arranged along, orthogonals that converge in one or more vanishing points on a horizon line.