Unit 2 (Positioning & Terminology)

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nenyabrooke
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104560
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Unit 2 (Positioning & Terminology)
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2011-12-03 20:26:55
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Radiographic Procedures
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Unit 1 (Chapter 3) General Anatomy and Radiographic Positioning Terminology
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  1. The science of the the structure of the body
    anatomy
  2. The study of the function of the body organs
    physiology
  3. The detailed study of the body of knowledge relating to the bones of the body
    osteology
  4. List the four fundamental planes of the body:
    • the coronal plane
    • the sagittal plane
    • the horizontal plane
    • the oblique plane
  5. Any plane passing vertically through the body from front to back and dividing the body into right and left segments:
    sagittal plane
  6. Three names for any plane passing vertically through the body from side to side and dividing the body into anterior and posterior segments:
    • coronal plane
    • axillary plane
    • frontal plane
  7. Two names for the plane that passes vertically through the midline of the body from side to side and divides the body into equal anterior and posterior segments:
    • mid-coronal plane
    • mid-axillary plane
  8. The plane passing through the midline of the body and dividing it into equal right and left halves:
    mid-sagittal plane
  9. Four names for a plane that passes crosswise through the body and divides the body into superior and inferior segments:
    • horizontal plane
    • transverse plane
    • axial plane
    • cross-sectional plane
  10. Any longitudinal or transverse plane that is at an angle or slant and not parallel to the sagittal, coronal, or horizontal planes:
    oblique plane
  11. A plane that transects the pelvis at the top of the iliac crests at the level of the fourth lumbar spinous process used in positioning the lumbar spine, sacrum, and coccyx:
    Interiliac plane
  12. A plane formed by the biting surfaces of the upper and lower teeth with the jaws closed, used in positioning of the odontoid process and some head projections:
    occlusal plane
  13. What are the two major body cavities of the torso?
    • thoracic cavity (everything above the diaphragm)
    • abdominal cavity (everything below the diaphragm)
  14. In what body cavity is the liver?
    Abdominal
  15. In what body cavity are the lungs, specifically?
    Pleural Cavity (in the Thoracic Cavity)
  16. In what body cavity is the heart, specifically?
    Pericardial Cavity (in the Thoracic Cavity)
  17. In what body cavity is the uterus?
    Pelvic
  18. In what body cavity is the spleen?
    Abdominal
  19. In what body cavity is the rectum?
    Pelvic
  20. In what body cavity are the ureters?
    Abdominal
  21. In what body cavity is the trachea?
    Thoracic
  22. In what body cavity are the ovaries?
    Pelvic
  23. In what body cavity is the esophagus?
    Thoracic
  24. What are the four quadrants of the body?
    • Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
    • Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
    • Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
    • Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
  25. Starting at the top,what are the nine regions of the body, from left to right?
    • Right Hypochondrium, Epigastrium, Left Hypochondrium
    • Right Lateral, Umbilical, Left Lateral
    • Right Inguinal, Hypogastrium, Left Inguinal
  26. What surface landmark is used to find C1?
    Mastoid Tip
  27. What surface landmark is used to find C2, C3?
    Gonion (angle of mandible)
  28. What surface landmark is used to find C3, C4?
    Hyoid Bone

    (though we can't technically use this landmark, as it can't be palpated)
  29. What surface landmark is used to find C5?
    Thyroid Cartilage
  30. What surface landmark is used to find C7, T1?
    Vertebra Prominens
  31. What surface landmark is used to find T1?
    Approximately 2" above level of Jugular Notch
  32. What surface landmark is used to find T2, T3?
    Level of Jugular Notch
  33. What surface landmark is used to find T4, T5?
    Level of Sternal Angle
  34. What surface landmark is used to find T7?
    Level of inferior angles of scapulae

    **In lab, 7" inferior to vertebral prominens
  35. What surface landmark is used to find T9, T10?
    Level of Xiphoid Process
  36. What surface landmark is used to find L2, L3?
    Inferior Costal Margin
  37. What surface landmark is used to find L4, L5?
    Level of superior-most aspect of Iliac Crests
  38. What surface landmark is used to find S1, S2?
    Level of Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS)
  39. What surface landmark is used to find the coccyx?
    Level of Pubic Symphysis and Greater Trochanters
  40. List characteristics of a Sthenic body habitus and its percentage of the average population:
    • 50% of the population
    • heart: moderately transverse
    • lungs: moderate length
    • diaphragm: moderately high
    • stomach: high, upper left
    • colon: spread evenly; slight dip in transverse section
    • gallbladder: centered on right side, upper abdomen
    • build: moderately heavy
    • abdomen: moderately long
    • thorax: moderately short, broad, and deep
    • pelvis: relatively small
  41. List characteristics of an Asthenic body habitus and its percentage of the average population:
    • 10% of the population
    • heart: nearly vertical and at midline
    • lungs: long, apices above clavicles, may be broader above base
    • diaphragm: low
    • stomach: low and medial, in the pelvis when standing
    • colon: low, folds on itself
    • gallbladder: low and nearer the midline
    • build: frail
    • abdomen: short
    • thorax: long, shallow
    • pelvis: wide
  42. List characteristics of a Hyposthenic body habitus and its percentage of the average population:
    • 35% of the population
    • organs and characteristics for this habitus are intermediate between sthenic and asthenic body habitus types; this habitus is the most difficult to classify
  43. List characteristics of a Hypersthenic body habitus and its percentage of the average population:
    • 5% of the population
    • heart: axis nearly transverse
    • lungs: short, apices at or near clavicles
    • diaphragm: high
    • stomach: high, transverse, and in the middle
    • colon: around periphery of abdomen
    • gallbladder: high, outside, lies more parallel
    • build: massive
    • abdomen: long
    • thorax: short, broad, deep
    • pelvis: narrow
  44. How many primary bones comprise the typical adult skeleton?
    206
  45. What are the four main parts of the appendicular skeleton and how many bones is it comprised of?
    • 126 bones
    • shoulder girdle
    • pelvic girdle
    • upper limbs (extremities)
    • lower limbs (extremities)
  46. What are the four main parts of the axial skeleton and how many bones is it comprised of?
    • 80 bones
    • skull
    • sternum
    • ribs
    • vertebral column
  47. The strong, dense, outer layer of bone tissue:
    compact bone
  48. The inner, trabeculated portion of the bone:
    spongy bone
  49. The central cylindrical canal of long bones:
    medullary cavity
  50. The tough, fibrous membrane that covers the bone (except where bone is covered by articular cartilage):
    Periosteum
  51. The long shaft of the bone is called the:
    diaphysis
  52. Each end of the long bone develops a separate bone that will eventually completely fuse to the shaft around the age of 21. This separate bone is the ___________ and is separated by the ____________.
    • Epiphysis
    • Epiphyseal plate/Epiphyseal line
  53. The process by which bones form in the body:
    ossification (they begin developing during the 2nd month of pregnancy)
  54. Some characteristics of primary ossification:
    • begins before birth
    • forms the short and irregular bones, shaft of long bones
    • bones develop in utero from hylan cartilage
  55. Some characteristics of secondary ossification:
    • after birth
    • epiphysis begins growing
  56. What are the five classifications of bones?
    • Long
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
    • Sesamoid
  57. Name some typical long bones:
    • femur
    • humerus
    • phalanges of fingers and toes
  58. Name some typical short bones:
    • carpal bones of wrists
    • tarsal bones of ankles
  59. Name some typical flat bones:
    • the bones of the cranium
    • sternum
    • scapula
  60. Name some typical irregular bones:
    • the vertebrae
    • the bones of the pelvis
    • the bones of the face
  61. Name some typical sesamoid bones:
    • patella (kneecap)
    • under the first metatarsophalangeal articulation of the foot
    • on the palmar aspect of the thumb and the metacarpophalangeal joint of the hand
    • beneath the base of the large toe
  62. The study of joints or articulations between bones:
    Arthrology
  63. What are the two main classifications of joint?
    • functional
    • structural
  64. What are the three structural classifications of articulations?
    • fibrous (immovable)
    • cartilaginous (limited or slight movement)
    • synovial (freely movable)
  65. What are the three functional classifications of articulations?
    • diarthroses (freely movable)
    • amphiarthroses (limited or slight movement)
    • synarthroses (immovable)
  66. How is functional classification of a joint determined?
    according to the movement type of the joint
  67. How is structural classification of a joint determined?
    according to the type of material connecting the bones
  68. Examples of joints that are synarthrosis/fibrous:
    • sutures: joints between bones of the skull
    • syndesmosis: inferior tibiofibular joint
    • gomphosis: the joint occurring only in the roots of the teeth
  69. Examples of joints that are amphiarthroses/cartilaginous:
    • symphysis: pubic symphysis, between vertebral bodies
    • synchondrosis: epiphyseal plate
  70. Examples and movements of gliding (plane) synovial joints:
    • intercarpal joints of wrist
    • intertarsal joints of foot
    • glide slightly in only one axis
  71. Examples and movements of hinge (ginglymus) synovial joints:
    • elbow
    • knee
    • ankle
    • interphalangeal
    • flexion and extension
  72. Examples and movements of pivot (trochoid) synovial joints:
    • the articulation of the atlas and axis of the cervical spine
    • rotation
  73. Examples and movements of ellipsoid (condyloid) synovial joints:
    • radio-carpal joint of the wrist
    • metacarpophalangeal
    • flexion & extension
    • abduction & adduction
    • circumduction
  74. Examples and movements of saddle (sellar) synovial joints:
    • carpometacarpal joint between the trapezium and the first metacarpal is the only one
    • flexion & extension
    • abduction & adduction
    • circumduction
  75. Examples and movements of ball and socket (spheroid) synovial joints:
    • hip joint
    • shoulder joint
    • flexion & extension
    • abduction & adduction
    • circumduction
    • rotation
  76. Sharp process:
    spine
  77. Bony projection:
    protuberance
  78. Beak-like process:
    coracoid
  79. Ridge-like process:
    crest
  80. Club-shaped process:
    malleolus
  81. Hook-shaped process:
    hamulus
  82. Long, pointed process:
    styloid
  83. Projection above a condyle:
    epicondyle
  84. Hornlike process on a bone:
    Horn
  85. Expanded end of a long bone:
    head
  86. Small, rounded, elevated process:
    tubercle
  87. Large, rounded, elevated process:
    Tuberosity
  88. Rounded process at an articular extremity:
    condyle
  89. Small, smooth-surfaced process for articuation:
    facet
  90. Large, rounded, elevated process located at the junction of the neck and shaft of the femur:
    trochanter
  91. Cleft or groove:
    Fissure
  92. Pit, fovea, or hollow:
    Fossa
  93. Shallow, linear depression:
    Groove
  94. Recess, groove, cavity, or hollow space:
    Sinus
  95. Furrow, trench, or fissure-like depression:
    Sulcus
  96. Hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and nerves:
    Foramen
  97. Less prominent ridge than a crest:
    line
  98. Indentation into the border of a bone:
    notch
  99. Tube-like passageway:
    meatus
  100. Refers to the sole of the foot:
    Plantar
  101. Refers to the palm of the hand:
    Palmar
  102. Refers to the covering of an organ:
    Visceral
  103. Refers to parts far from the surface:
    Deep
  104. Refers to a part near the skin or surface:
    Superficial
  105. Refers to nearer the feet or situated below:
    Inferior
  106. Refers to nearer the head or situated above:
    Superior
  107. Refers to parts toward the head of the body:
    Cephalad
  108. Refers to a part on the same side of the body:
    Ipsilateral
  109. Refers to the back part of the body or an organ:
    Dorsal
  110. Refers to parts away from the head of the body:
    Caudad
  111. Refers to the middle area or main part of an organ:
    Central
  112. Refers to a part within or on the inside of an organ:
    Internal
  113. Refers to a part or parts on the opposite side of the body:
    Contralateral
  114. Refers to a part outside of an organ or on the outside of the body:
    External
  115. Refers to parts at or near the surface, edge, or outside of a body part:
    Peripheral
  116. Refers to the forward or front part of the body or to the forward part of organ:
    Anterior
  117. Refers to parts toward the median plane of the body or toward the middle of a body part:
    Medial
  118. Refers to parts nearest the point of attachment, point of reference, origin, or beginning:
    Proximal
  119. Refers to parts farthest from the point of attachment, point of reference, origin, or beginning:
    Distal
  120. Refers to the top or anterior surface of the foot, or to the back or posterior surface of the hand:
    Dorsum
  121. Refers to parts away from the median plane of the body or away from the middle of a part to the right or the left:
    Lateral
  122. The path of the CR as it exits the x-ray tube and goes through the patient to the IR:
    Projection
  123. General body position and specific placement of the body part in relation to the IR during imaging:
    Position
  124. The body part as seen by the IR - used in reference to the finished image:
    View
  125. The specific radiologic projection developed by an individual:
    Method
  126. AP is a:

    A. Projection
    B. Radiographic Position
    C. Body Position
    A. Projection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. Supine is a:

    A. Projection
    B. Radiologic Position
    C. Body Position
    C. Body Position
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. Upright is a:

    A. Projection
    B. Radiologic Position
    C. Body Position
    C. Body Position
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  129. AP axial is a:

    A. Body Position
    B. Radiologic Position
    C. Projection
    C. Projection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  130. Lordotic is a:

    A. Projection
    B. Radiologic Position
    C. Body Position
    B. Radiologic Position
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  131. Recumbent is a:

    A. Radiologic Position
    B. Projection
    C. Body Position
    C. Body Position
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  132. Tangential is a:

    A. Radiologic Position
    B. Projection
    C. Body Position
    B. Projection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  133. AP oblique:

    A. Projection
    B. Radiologic Position
    C. Body Position
    A. Projection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  134. Dorsoplantar:

    A. Body Position
    B. Radiologic Position
    C. Projection
    C. Projection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  135. Left lateral:

    A. Radiologic Position
    B. Projection
    C. Body Position
    A. Radiologic Position
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  136. Transthoracic:

    A. Projection
    B. Body Position
    C. Radiologic Position
    A. Projection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  137. Trendelenburg:

    A. Radiologic Position
    B. Body Position
    C. Projection
    B. Body Position
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  138. Parietoacanthial:

    A. Body Position
    B. Projection
    C. Radiologic Position
    B. Projection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  139. Right Anterior Oblique:

    A. Radiologic Position
    B. Projection
    C. Body Position
    A. Radiologic Position
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  140. Right Lateral Decubitus:

    A. Projection
    B. Radiologic Position
    C. Body Position
    B. Radiologic Position
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  141. Where the Central Ray is angled longitudinally with the long axis of the body:
    Axial
  142. Where the Central Ray enters the anterior body surface and exits the posterior body surface:
    AP
  143. Where the Central Ray enters the posterior body surface and exits the anterior body surface:
    PA
  144. Where the Central Ray enters the side or lateral aspect of the body or body part and exits the other side:
    Lateral
  145. Where the Central Ray enters the body or body part from a side angle into the anterior or posterior surface of the body:
    Oblique
  146. Where the Central Ray is directed toward the outer margin or a curved body to profile a body part and project it free of superimposition:
    Tangential
  147. A fracture that does not break through the skin:
    closed fracture
  148. A serious fracture in which bones are not in anatomic alignment:
    displaced fracture
  149. A fracture in which bone retains its normal alignment:
    nondisplaced fracture
  150. A serious fracture in which broken bone or bones project through the skin:
    open fracture
  151. A projection in which the CR or the body part is angled 10 degrees or more along the long axis of the body:
    Axial projection
  152. A projection where the CR touches or skims the surface of the body or body part at only one point:
    Tangential projection (used to separate superimposed structures)
  153. Describe an AP projection:
    • Anteroposterior Projection
    • The CR enters the anterior surface of the body and exits the posterior surface of the body.
  154. Describe a PA projection:
    • Posteroanterior Projection
    • The CR enters the posterior surface of the body and exits the anterior surface of the body.
  155. Describe a Lateral projection:
    The perpendicular CR enters the body or part along the coronal plane and correlates to the side of the body closest to the film
  156. Describe a Lateromedial projection:
    Usually in extremeties, when the CR enters the lateral side and exits the medial side on its way to the IR
  157. Describe a Mediolateral projection:
    Usually in extremeties, when the CR enters the medial side and exits the lateral side on its way to the IR
  158. What is the unique lateral projection used for shoulder radiography?
    transthoracic
  159. What projection is used when the angled CR enters the posterior body surface and exits the anterior body surface?
    PA axial projection
  160. What projection is used when the CR is angled and enters and exits through the lateral aspects of the body?
    Axiolateral projection
  161. List some general body positions:
    • Upright
    • Seated
    • Recumbent (horizontal)
    • Supine (horizontal on spine)
    • Prone (horizontal on stomach)
    • Trendelenburg (feet higher than head)
    • Fowler's (head higher than feet)
    • Sim's (oblique, ex. insertion of enema tip)
    • Lithotomy (recumbent, hips flexed)
  162. For an RPO position, what projection is employed?
    AP Oblique projection
  163. For an LPO position, what projection is employed?
    AP Oblique projection
  164. For an RAO position, what projection is employed?
    PA Oblique projection
  165. For an LAO position, what projection is employed?
    PA Oblique projection
  166. What is the Lordotic body position and what is its primary function?
    It is when the feet come out from the board, poking the belly out while the shoulders remain against the board. It is primarily used to throw the clavicles out of the lung field; common with TB patients
  167. What projection is employed when the patient is in the Lordotic position?
    An AP axial projection
  168. To turn around an axis:
    • Rotation
    • can be medial or lateral
  169. Straightening of a joint:
    Extension
  170. Circular movement of a limb/joint:
    Circumduction
  171. Forced or excessive straightening of a joint:
    Hyperextension
  172. Forced or excessive flexion of a joint or part:
    Hyperflexion
  173. Movement where the dorsal surface of the foot moves toward the leg:
    Dorsiflexion
  174. A turning away from the regular standard or course:
    deviation
  175. To turn the forearm so that the palm is up:
    • Supinate
    • (lateral motion away from body)
    • (radius and ulna are parallel, no cross-over)
  176. To turn the forearm so that the palm is down:
    • Pronate
    • (to rotate medially)
    • (radius crosses over the ulna)
  177. Movement of a part toward the central axis of a body or body part:
    Adduction
  178. Movement of the the foot when it is turned inward at the ankle joint (Inward stress movement):
    Inversion
  179. Movement of the foot when it is turned outward at the ankle joint (Outward stress movement):
    Eversion
  180. Movement of a part away from the central axis of a body or body part:
    Abduction
  181. Bending movement of a joint whereby the angle between contiguous bones is diminished:
    Flexion
  182. Movement of a part so that the sagittal (longitudinal) plane is angled so that it is not parallel with the long axis of the body (tipping/slanting):
    Tilt
  183. Movement in which you point the toes, away from the leg:
    Plantarflex
  184. Exception to the Deviation movement:
    Ulnar deviation is actually a flexion (bringing hand closer to the ulna)
  185. The body movement where you bring the structure up:
    Elevation
  186. The body movement where you relax the structure down:
    Depression
  187. A body movement specific to the mandible in which the jaw is pushed forward:
    Protract
  188. A body movement specific to the mandible in which the jaw is brought back:
    Retract

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