AP Euro Chapter 14

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AP Euro Chapter 14
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2011-09-26 23:14:35
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McKay chapter 14
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  1. Martin Luther- who
    • german professor&priest
    • 1483-1546
  2. Martin Luther- whats
    • joined Augustinian friars---> poor
    • created new understanding of St. Paul's Letters (God's word over others)
    • 1517- wrote "95 Theses on Power of Indulgence" (named to Wittenberg Castle)
    • publicized in pamphlets; exp: on Christian Liberty (freed of sin by JC)
  3. Luther- whys
    • individualism vs. church
    • intellectual creativity
    • questions contemp. church
  4. Ulrich Zwingli- who
    • Swiss humanist, priest, loves Erasmus
    • 1484-1531
  5. Zwingli-whats
    • preach from Erasmus' NT
    • convinced Scriptures= pure words of God&truth
    • attacked indulgences, mass, monasticism, clerical celibacy
  6. Zwingli- whys
    • spread of new ideas
    • new concepts/ways of thinking
    • indiv. vs. community
  7. Anabaptists- who
    • community of believers separated from state
    • 1520's
  8. Anabaptists- whats
    • adopted baptism
    • rejected unbiblical things
    • reacted harshly to deviated vs. individuality
  9. Anabaptists-whys
    • individual? no group? yes
    • step backwards
    • opposition
  10. German Peasants war of 1525- who
    • war waging for rights
    • 1525
  11. German Peasants war of 1525-whats
    • failed crops-->nobility taking MORE land
    • made demands..aligned with scripture?
    • improved style of living
  12. German Peasants war of 1525- whys
    • reformation appeal lowered
    • poverty--> prosperity
  13. Charles V and Austrian House of Hasburg-who
    • family with advantageous marriages
    • 1500-1558
    • (r. 1519-1556)
  14. Charles V and Austrian House of Hasburg- whats
    • frederick III acquired $$$ from Princess Eleonore
    • Maximillian(son) married Mary of Burgondy (LAND)
    • Son/daughter married to Ferdinand/Isabella's children
    • Charles V inherited lots of territory&people "world monarchy"; Catholicism
  15. Charles V and Austrian House of Hasburg- whys
    • unification
    • economic prosperity
    • vast land/people &one ruler??
  16. Peace of Ausburg-who
    • religious peace in Germany; under Charles V
    • 1555
  17. Peace of Ausburg- whats
    • recognized Lutheranism
    • territories chose between c&L
    • ended religious war in Germany
  18. Peace of Ausburg- whys
    • peace, not fighting
    • stronger nation
    • new religion
    • decentralized religiously
  19. King Henry VIII- who
    • changed the country's religion for own personal gain
    • r. 1509-1547
    • England
  20. King Henry VIII- whats
    • married Catherine of Argon (widow of bro) had girl- Mary
    • wanted boy, so divorce? Pope not allow
    • ended authority of popes- 1530
    • beheaded new wife, Anne of Boyelen (2 girls)
    • Jane Seymour had Edward, then three more wives
    • 1535-1539 dissolved monasteries (RICH)
  21. King Henry VIII- whys
    • improved economy
    • prosperous even more so
    • centralized bureaucracy
    • spread of Protestantism
  22. Queen Elizabeth I- who
    • daughter of anne of Boylen, Mary of Tudor's sister; kept religious stability
    • 1558-1603
    • England
  23. Queen Elizabeth I- whats
    • referred to self as "gov of church of England" (:) middle)
    • help elements of P&C
    • imprisoned cousin, Mary of Scotts, (plan to overthrow)
    • defeated Spain
  24. Queen Elizabeth I- whys
    • maintained a steady religion
    • didn't punish people for beliefs
    • sense of nationalism
  25. John Calvin- who
    • created Calvinism (P-based)&spread
    • 1509-1561
  26. John Calvin- whats
    • 1533- converted to P
    • 1536- wrote The institutes of Christian Religion (God= complete soveirgnity)
    • dictated humans are predestinated by God free will
    • established the Genevan Consistory (strict)
  27. John Calvin- whys
    • spread ideas---> unified religion
    • people punished
    • compelling model, for Scotland France and England
  28. Pope Paul III- who
    • pope stopped resisting the Ref of the church
    • pontificate: 1534-1549
  29. Pope Paul III- whats
    • made the papal court center of REf
    • supported improvements in ed. for clergy, end of simony, stricter clerically
    • established the Holy Office(jurisdiction for Roman Inquistion)
    • establish general council (of Trent)
  30. Pope Paul III- whys
    • changed life in church
    • improvements
  31. The Council of Trent- who
    • general council setting basis for spiritual renewal
    • 1545-1563
  32. Council of Trent- whats
    • secured reconciliation w/ P
    • dictated = validity to Scriptures &religious authority
    • emphasized impt. of preaching (&moral live)
    • stipulated marriage vows- must be in front of witness
  33. Council of Trent- whys
    • catholic church increases in power
    • morality increases
  34. Ignatius Loyola&Society of Jesus-who
    • person founded Jesuits, spread C.
    • 1491-1556
    • 1548 ish
  35. Ignatius Loyola&Society of Jesus- whats
    • 1548- wrote spiritual exercises (training for spiritual discipline.. think Buddhist)
    • 1540??- approval from papal for formation of Jesuits
    • saw ref as pastoral problem "help souls"
  36. Ignatius Loyola&Society of Jesus- whys
    • spread C
    • obeyed Pope- personal army
    • increase in spiritual conditions
  37. St. Bartholomew's Day- who
    • massacre of Huegnots
    • Aug 24 1572
    • France
  38. St. Bartholomew's Day- whats
    • marriage between P and King(unify??)
    • killed Huegnots -spread
    • led to 15 yr civil war
    • saved by politiques (strong monarchy)
  39. St. Bartholomew's Day- whys
    • individualism
    • racist
  40. Henry IV & Edict of Nantes- who
    • restored peace to France
    • r. 1589-1610
    • 1598
  41. Henry IV & Edict of Nantes- whats
    • sacrificed religious principles to political necessity
    • converted to C
    • issued Edict of Nantes (conscience/ public worship to Hugenots)
    • prepared way for absolutism
  42. Henry IV & Edict of Nantes-whys
    • restored peace
    • granted liberties to H's
    • individualism recognized
  43. Philip II of Spain-who
    • reigned over war between p&C
    • 1556
  44. Philip II- whats
    • grew up in Spain (P)
    • sent 20,000 troops to Antwerp (pacification)
    • disapproved of separation; N=P/ S=C
  45. Philip II- whys
    • questions religious freedom
    • many killed

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