AP Bio Ch 3.txt

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AP Bio Ch 3.txt
2011-09-27 01:14:21
AP Bio

ap biology vocab
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  1. acid
    A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
  2. acid precipitation
    Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.6.
  3. adhesion
    The attraction between different kinds of molecules.
  4. aqueous solution
    A solution in which water is the solvent.
  5. base
    A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
  6. buffer
    A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
  7. calorie
    The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C; also the amount of heat energy that 1 g of water releases when it cools by 1°C. The Calorie (with a capital C), usually used to indicate the energy content of food, is a kilocalorie.
  8. celsius scale
    A temperature scale (°C) equal to 5/9 (°F - 32) that measures the freezing point of water at 0°C and the boiling point of water at 100°C.
  9. cohesion
    The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
  10. colloid
    A mixture made up of a liquid and particles that (because of their large size) remain suspended in that liquid. See large intestine.
  11. evaporative cooling
    The property of a liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state.
  12. heat
    The total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. Heat is energy in its most random form.
  13. heat of vaporization
    The quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state.
  14. hydration shell
    The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion.
  15. hydrogen ion
    A single proton with a charge of 1+. The dissociation of a water molecule (H2O) leads to the generation of a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+).
  16. hydrophilic
    Having an affinity for water.
  17. hydrophobic
    Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
  18. hydroxide ion
    A water molecule that has lost a proton (OH-).
  19. joule
    A unit of energy: 1 J = 0.239 cal; 1 cal = 4.184 J.
  20. kilocalorie
    A thousand calories; the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C.
  21. kinetic energy
    The energy of motion, which is directly related to the speed of that motion. Moving matter does work by imparting motion to other matter.
  22. molarity
    A common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
  23. mole
    The number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains Avogadro’s number of molecules.
  24. molecular mass
    The sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule; sometimes called molecular weight.
  25. pH
    A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to –log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
  26. polar molecule
    A molecule (such as water) with opposite charges on opposite sides.
  27. solute
    A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
  28. solution
    A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
  29. solvent
    The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile solvent known.
  30. specific heat
    The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of a substance to change its temperature by 1°C.
  31. surface tension
    A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high surface tension because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules.
  32. temperature
    A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules.