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study of how we acquire motor skills
what does motor learning focus on?
changes that occur with pracrtice or experience in observable behaviour
study of how we control a skill from one attempt to next
what are characteristics of motor control?
- assumption skill been learned
- problem is control of skill
- performance fluctuatues to to factors suchs as
- -physical condition
- -cognitive, somatic anxiety
what are 4 parts of study?
- Acquisition sessions
what is a pre test ? (explain)
- Measures entry level skill for task
- -test should be valid and reliable
- valid-meaurable the variable suppsoe to
- reliable-measure variable same way each time
- -select similar skill level groups
- homogonous group- all the same
- heterogenous group-all different level skill( get ranked)
what is acquisition session?
- skills trained under experimental condition being tested
- -ex: high level feedback vs delayed of feedback
what is retention?
- post test that measures improvement on same skill since pre test
- -similar to pre test
what is transfer?
- post test that measure improvement on different but related skills since pre test
- -situation not use to
- -can cause cognitive anxiety
if we want to ensure long term success research shows that:
brain must change at same time there are changes in physiology and mecahnics
physical improvement in physiology and biomechanics are _______ if brain does not change as well
what are the 3 stages of motor learning and control? (FItts & Posner Model)
- Verbal cognitive
- Associative Stage
- Autonomous Stage
explain the verbal cognitive stage
- just beginning to learn
- variability-every trial different
- cant correct errors
explain associative stage
- learning control
- cant handle unusual situation
- fewer error
- more predictable
explain autonomous stage
- can figure out your errors and others
- deal with unusual conditions
- perform without thought
what are critiques of Fitts and Posner Model?
- 1) Final automatic stage is outdated
- -when skills of sport become automic performance plateaus
- -lower levels aspects performancebecome automatic, higher levels shouldnt
- 2)Learning does not occur in linear stages
- -do not move from one stage to next in 1,2,3 fashion
- -may be good at one sport and horrible at another
explain Rasmussen non linear model
- knowledge phase-high cognitive mental effort
- Rule based- rules guide behaviour, conscious control
- skill based-"smooth automatic and highly integrated pattern of behaviour
- adaptive, flexible control-high level external focus and can handle all situations
what is dependent variable and some measurable outcomes?
- it is the measured variable
- measurable outcomes are:
- -error scores
- -% accuracy
- -reaction time
- -movement time
there are ____ ms per s
what is definition of rreaction time?
period of time from presentation of stimulus until first observable movement
what is definition of movement time?
time from first observable movement until end of response
what is a EMG?
electomyography- records electrical activity from muscles
What is Hick's Law?
as number of S-R pairs increases, chice reacton time increases in a linear fashion
cant go lower than ____ ms for reaction time
what is choice reaction time?
interval of time between the presentation of one of several stimuli and the beginning of one of several responses
more than one visual stimulus and more than one set of msucles has to be organized
what has the slowest reaction time?
what has the fastest reaction time
what are three characteristics of skilled performance?
- 1)maximum certainty of goal achievement
- 2)minimum energy expendenture
- 3)minimum movement time
explain maximum certainty of achievement
consistent elite performer that can produce under extreme pressure
explain minimum energy expenditure
-with practice, difficult skills become easier
explain minimum movement time
- optimal speed for each task
- ex: sprint start
summer explains that when a motor skill is performedthe processing of information occurs through discrete stages...what are these stages?
- perceptual processes
- decision making
- response selection
- response programming
- known as schmidt model