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Knowledge that comes from evidence is more valued than intuition.
Distinguish between a hypothesis and a theory.
- Hypothesis: a statement about the cause of an event or about the r'ship between 2 events.
- (must be testable and refutable)
- Theory: attempts to explain how or why observations are connected.
- Theories can be used to generate new hypotheses
Define the 3 stages of Hypothesis testing.
Stage 1) Observe the World / Ask Questions.
Stage 2) Evaluate data that supports or contradicts hypothesis (can never prove a hypothesis
Stage 3) Statistical testing
What are the 3 components to the scientific method?
1) Generate a hypothesis.
2) Design a research plan.
3) Analyze data to test the hypothesis.
When do researchers use the case study method?
To make careful observations of one person.
Define internal/external validity.
Internal: confident that changes in the dependent variable truly resulted from manipulation of the independent variable.
External: Results can be generalized to the whole population.
Define Correlation Design
Measure two variables and estimate their degree of relationship.
Does not prove causality.
Define Epidemiological Study.
Survey of factors affecting behavior in the population at large.
Define Experimental Design.
Cause & Effect
Experimental group/Control Group
Define Quasi-Experimental Design.
Compare people with a certain experience (a disorder, treatment, life-event, etc) to those without that experience (comparison or control group
Define Prospective, Longitudinal Designs.
Repeated assessment of the same individuals over time.
What area of genetics have made important contributions to our understanding of psychological disorders?
How many genes exist in an individual, and are they all the same?
Yes, but in different variations.
Describe the difference between Population & Molecular genetics.
Examines the importance of both genes and environment on a trait.
Examines which variations in genetic material are associated with phenotypes of interest.
Define Behavior Genetics.
Field of study that attempts to estimates how much genetic variability between people causes phenotypic variability in trait of interest.