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What is the instructional level?
What is the frustration level
what are the two best predictors of early reading success?
- phonemic awareness
- alphabetic knowledge
What is phonemic awareness?
the awareness of the speech sounds in a spoken word
What is isolation?
recognizing individual sounds in words
What is identity?
hearing same sounds in different words (cat and mad)
What is categorization?
recognizing a word having a different sound in a group of words (bad, dad, sad)
what is blending?
blending sounds to make words
What is segmentation?
breaking a spoken word into phonemes (dog)
What is deletion?
removing a sound and recognize what remains (sit, bat, meat, when)
What is addition?
adding a phenome to create a new word
What is substitution?
replacing a phenome with anohter to create a new word (feet, meet)
Teaching stratigies (4)
- Word stretching
- Segment and blend compound words
- Segment and blend onset and rime
telephone, refer, refuse
Alphabet teaching routines
- teach 1 or 2 letters per week: letter name, identification, writing the upper and lower cases
- use alphabet chart
what is phonics?
the systematic and predictable relationships between spelling patterns and speech sounds
The C rule
soft c or /s/ followed by e, i, or y
hard c or /k/ followed by a, o, or u
The G rule
soft g or /j/ followed by e, i, or y
hard g or /g/ followed by a, o, or u
when two vowels go walking the first one does the talking (meat, beat, boat)
VC final e pattern
the vowel is long while the e is silent (make, lake, bike)
the r controls the vowel (her, author, fur)
call, cold, help, fall
the vowel is long (so, go, be, me, no)
the vowel sound is short (bat, mom, leg, cod, pit)
Assessment in phonological awareness, phonics and word identification (5)
- letter id
- initial sound identification
- sound isolation
- nonsense word identification
- running record
Arkansas standards for fluency rate
- K = 40 letters
- 1st = 40 words
- 2nd = 90 words
- 3rd = 110 words
- 4th = 118 words
- 8th = 171 words
what does it mean to be fluent?
- reading orally with speed, accuracy, and proper expression
- automaticity, expression, rate, phrasing
what causes non-fluency (4)
- limited vocabulary
- poor decoding skills
- poor comprehension
- limited reading experience
Benchmarks of fluency development
K = Reads familiar texts emergently
1st = reads aloud with accuracy any text that is appropriately designed for first semester
2nd = accurately decodes regular multi-syllable words; accurately reads many irregularly spelled words
3rd = reads aloud wiht fluency any text that is at grade level
Oral reading fluency or running record
teacher counts the # of words read in one minute
counts the # of errors
reports # of correctly read words
Retell fluency comprehension
What skills are needed in order to read fluently?
- automatic decoding
- proper pause and expression
What are some popular approaches to fluency instruction
- familiar reading
- buddy reading
- oral repeated reading
- echo reading
- choral reading
- reader's theatere
- evening newscast
- DEAR and extensive home reading
How to do repeated oral reading?
- buddy reading: read to each other with the fluent reader reading first
- tape-assisted reading
- independent familiar reading
What is the fluency instruction- fluency pyramid for K-2
- stories/predictable books