LIN 3713 Q#2

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  1. the structure of phrases and sentences
  2. rules fore how constituents (words or phrases) are allowed to be put together
  3. not about meaning; however, we may consider a meaning as a tool to help us understand ____
  4. what is the function of syntax?
    all languages express roles and function but in different ways
  5. often expressed as using word order
    function of syntax in English
  6. Other languages may use specific markings on nouns, verbs (or other categories) to denote objects, subjects, etc.
    function of syntax
  7. **tell us something about the way that a word allowed to function in a sentence**
    (lexical categories)
  8. 2 groups of lexical categories
    • content words
    • function words
  9. contribute to the meaning of the sentence
    content words
  10. also referred to as "open lexical categories" because new words can be added.
    content words
  11. nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are an example of
    content words
  12. rare for new members to be added to this group
    function words
  13. also referred to as "closed categories"
    function words
  14. prepositions, pronouns, determiners, auxiliary verbs, and conjunctions are an example of
    function words
  15. **the same word <phonological form> can belong to more than one __**; **need to examine how it functions in a sentence**
    lexical category (true)
  16. english is unique because it allows many ___ to be turned into ___without any morphological changes
    • nouns
    • verbs
  17. when trying to determine what lexical category a word belongs to, the best way to identify a words lexical category is...
    to look carefully at how it functions in a sentence
  18. internalization of the rules of language that govern how words are organized into sentences
    syntactic development
  19. how to organize words into sentences taht specify who did what to whom
    syntactic development
  20. developed through gradual internalization of the grammatical system of one's language
    syntactic development
  21. a finite number of discrete elements that allow the child to produce an infinite number of sentences
    discrete combinatorial system
  22. 3 major syntactic achievements
    • increase in utterance length
    • increase in sentence variety
    • development of a complex syntax
  23. gradually increases from 1 to 6 years of age
    utterance length
  24. ***by age (6) most children are able to produce __ that are on average, nearly as long as those of adults
    utterance length
  25. ___ provides a simple proxy for estimating syntactic complexity up to age 5 years
    calculating the mean number of morphemes per utterance (MLU: mean length of utterance)
  26. 3 modalities of sentence variety
    • declarative
    • interrogative
    • negative
  27. type of sentece that makes a statement
  28. fairly common for 3 year old to have mastered the majority of the declarative patterns & to use __ & __ conjunctions to link several together
    • subordinating
    • coordinating
  29. children are never explicity taught how to produce ___;they intuit the rules from the language around them
    declarative sentences
  30. what type of sentence expresses negation
  31. which type of sent relies on words such as no, not, can't, won't, don't?
  32. involves learning where to insert negatives into sentences
  33. 2 major question types
    • "wh" questions
    • "yes/no" questions
  34. asks specific info about time, place, manner, reason, and quantity
    "wh" questions
  35. has a yes no response
    yes no questions
  36. there are specific syntactic rules to orgabnize sentences for ____ purposes
  37. for a "wh" question, place wh word in the.....
    initial noun phrase slot and "emptying" the object slot
  38. in a yes/no interrogative: the auxiliary verb "__" moves from its place following the subject and preceding its main ___ to go before the __
    • is
    • verb
    • subject
  39. linking phrases and clauses
    complex syntax
  40. ___ --> ___ --> ___ --> sentence
    • word
    • phrase
    • clause
  41. cluster of words organized around a head
  42. allows children to connect phrases
    phrasal coordination
  43. a syntactic structure continuing a verb or verb phrase
  44. age ___ children conjoin and embed clauses
  45. Brown's 5 stages of grammatical development:
    Stage I:
    1-1.99 (1.75)=single-word utterances predominate...inflections not used
  46. Brown's 5 stages of grammatical development
    Stage II:
    2-2.49 (2.25)= Two- and three-word utterances predominate. Grammatical inflections emerge. Emergence of grammar as child follows basic word-order patterns
  47. Brown's 5 stages of grammatical development
    Stage III:
    2.5-2.99 (2.75)=Emergence of different sentence modalities: yes-no wuestions, wh-questions, imperatives, and negatives
  48. Brown's 5 stages of grammatical development
    Stage IV:
    3.0-3.99 (3.5)= complex sentences emerge to feature multiclause sentences, such as object-noun phrase complements embedded wh- questions, and embedded relative clauses
  49. Brown's 5 stages of grammatical development
    Stage V:
    4.0+= emergence of coordinating conjunctions and adverbial conjucts
  50. use of phrase & clause structures as well as conjunctive devices for organizing internal structure of sentences
    complex syntax
  51. 2 influences on syntactic development
    • relativity invariant across children compared to other domains of language; largely uniform patterns in type and timing of developments
    • individual differences become even more evient as children develop more complex aspects of syntax
  52. 2 exposures to a complex syntax
    • variability in the extent to which children are exposed to exemplars of more complex syntax
    • Hoff's "learning from input hypothesis." grammatical properties of childrens language use are dependent upon exposure to those properties in child directed speech
  53. 2 language disorders can disrupt syntactic comprehension and production
    • developmental language
    • acquired language
  54. language disorders present at birth
  55. what does it mean when a language disroder is specific?
    they affect only the language faculty (SLI)
  56. what does it mean when a language disorder is secondary?
    resulting from other causes such as mental retardation; down syndrome
  57. what is an acquired language disorder?
    injury or illness damaging the language centers of the brain
  58. ____ is an example of an acquired disorder in which syntactic skills are seriously affected. keading to a condition called _______
    • stroke (affects Broca's area in left hemisphere)
    • agrammatic aphasia
  59. types of syntactic features:
    short sentences; difficulty with verbs
  60. the rules of language governing the internal organization of words
  61. **smallest unit of language that carry meaning; add grammatical inflection to words; can change syntactic class of words**
  62. morphological development involves acquiring what 2 types of morpheme:
    • grammatical/inflectional morphemes
    • derivational morphemes
  63. process of creating words out of other words. Takes the phonological form of one word & performs one or more "operations" on it to result in a new word
    • derivation
    • ex: un + happy = unhappy
  64. creation of different grammatical forms of words
    • inflection
    • cat + s = cats
  65. form of the root
  66. the parts added to the stem
  67. affix that precedes a stem
    • prefix
    • ex: un + happy = unhappy
  68. affix that follows a stem
    • suffix
    • ex: cat + s = cats
  69. see morphing posting
    know charts
  70. can be used as words by themselves; include both words with clear semantic referents and also words that serve primarily grammatical purposes
    free morphemes
  71. **cannot stand alone (affixes (suf/pre)); must attach to other morphemes**
    bound morphemes (cannot be used as words alone)
  72. indicate a change in meaning; added to words to change their syntactic class and semantic meaning
    content/derivational morpheme
  73. internalization of the rules of language that govern the structure of words
    morphological development
  74. **occurs when a (mature grammar specifies use of grammatical marker); instances in which a mature grammar specifies the use of a grammatical marker**
    obligatory contexts
  75. child's acquisition of the major grammatical morphemes fairly invariant in both order and timing of acquisition; about age __, emergence of 1st grammatical morpheme, the present progressive -ing
    grammatical morphemes p 83
  76. enables a child's movement from speaking with a "telegraphic quality" to a more adult like quality
    grammatical morphology
  77. children include a grammatical morpheme in 90% or more of obligatory contexts (not optional to be omitted)
    morpheme mastery
  78. **Roger Brown's "World and Things" described children's development of __ grammatical morpjemes; emerged in a uniform order across children**
  79. because each prefix and suffix can be combined with many root words, development of ____ morphology adds precision to one's lexical base
  80. **3 influences on Morphologic development**
    • 2nd language acquisition
    • (dialect)
    • language impairment
  81. ____: people learning a 2nd language that differs considerable in its grammatical morphology from their native language may ___ master the grammaticall morphology of the 2nd language
    • 2nd language acquisition
    • never
  82. 2 influences of 2nd language acquisition
    • age of learner
    • whether morpheme is inflected in 1st language
  83. morphology varies among ___ of a single language in 3 ways:
    • dialects
    • copula or be auxiliary verbs
    • verbs tense inflections
    • possessive & plural inflections
  84. hallmark characteristic of SLI: difficulty in grammatical morphology
    language impairment
  85. verb markings such as past tense inflection and the 3rd person singular inflection
    language impairment
  86. a multicultural focus reflects:
    language and children of poverty
  87. 20% of children under 18 reside in households with annual incomes below the poverty threshold
    40% live in low income houses (twice the annual poverty threshold)
    compared to white children, those who are black or hispanic are much more likely to live in poverty
  88. there is a strong ____ relationship between poverty and language achievement
  89. what 4 things are common amongst children raised in poverty & low-income households:
    • consistently know fewer words
    • produce shorter utterances
    • use smaller variety of words
    • have less developed phonological skills
  90. poverty also affects what 3 areas
    • cognition & learning
    • social-emotional functioning
    • general health
  91. 2 major influences on morphological development
    • parental socio-emotional resources: maternal depression
    • parental access to resources: medical care; lessons, summer camps, better quality child care, etc.
  92. study of the distribution of sounds in a language and the interactions between those different sounds
  93. **study of how speech sounds are produced**
  94. class of speech sounds that native speakers identify as different sounds
  95. phonemes have 2 descriptions
    • written with slashes
    • differs from language to language
  96. variations of the same phoneme
  97. acquiring the rules of language that govern the sound structure of syllables and words
    phonological development
  98. in dividual speech sounds in a language that signal a contrast in meaning betwen 2 syllables or words
  99. **neurological imprint of a phoneme that differentiates it from other phonemes**
    phonological representation
  100. Phonological development involves developing sensitivity to the ___ of a person's natibve language; these rules specify "legal" orders of sounds in syllables and words & the places where spcific phonemes can and cannot occur
    phonotactic rules
  101. **begins immediately with birth if not prior as the infant experiences speech beyong the womb**
    phonological building blocks
  102. **3 building blocks of phonological development**
    • using cues to segment streams of speech
    • developing a phonemic inventory
    • becoming phonologically aware
  103. ___use specific cues to parse speech stream into smaller units and to separate simultaneously occurring speech streams
  104. 2 types of cues in parsing the stream of speech
    • prosodic cues
    • phonotactic cues
  105. infants use their familiarity of word and syllable stress patterns, or the rhythm of language, to break into speech stream
    prosodic cues
  106. knowledge of word-stress patterns
    knowlege of pausing
    prosodic cues
  107. sensitivity to the probability with which certain sounds occur both in general and in specific positions of syllables and words
    phonotactic cues
  108. knowledge of probabilities and improbabilities is an important tool for the infant to segment novel words out of a continuous stream of speech
    phonotactic cues
  109. internal representations of phonemes comprising one's native language
    phonological knowledge
  110. expression of phonemes to produce syllables and words
    phonological production
  111. early consonants
    • p
    • b
    • m
    • w
  112. late consonants
    • /s/
    • /z/
    • /l/
    • /r/
    • /th sound/
    • etc p 100
  113. timing of phonemic inventory development is influenced by (3)
    • frequency in spoken language
    • # of words a child uses
    • articulatory complexity of producing the phoneme
  114. order of consonantal acquisition ___ across languages
  115. sufficiently well-developed by ____ years of age to provide for fully intelligible speech
    3 to 4
  116. Types under phonological awareness umbrella (5 + 4 subunits)
    • sound awareness
    • word awareness
    • syllable awareness
    • onset & rime awareness
    • phonemic awareness: phoneme, isolation, bleding, segmenting, and manipulation
  117. phonological building blocks (3)
    • using cues to segment streams of speech
    • developing a phonemic inventory
    • becoming phonologically aware
  118. an individual's ability to attend the phonological segments of speech through implicit or explicit analysis
    phonological awareness
  119. 3 subunits under phonological awareness
    • identify rhyming words
    • identify the 1st sound in a word
    • count the # of phonemes in a word
  120. focus on the phonemic units of words
    phonemic awareness
  121. segmenting the individual sounds
    phonemic awareness
  122. teaches children the relationships between letters and sounds
  123. children who are "_____" are better able to profit from phonics instruction that children who are unaware
    phonologically aware
  124. 2 influences on phonological development
    • native language
    • linguistic experience
  125. **influence of the phonemic composition of the languages to which infants are exposed**
    native language
  126. importance of a phoneme in a languages phonemic inventory
    functional load
  127. variability in phonologial exposure such as:
    lower-income homes vs higher-income homes
    chronic ear infections
    linguistic experience
  128. **provide info about grammatical function**
    function/grammatical/inflectional morphemes
  129. **something to do with native/linguistic page 100-101**
    the answer was true on the quiz
  130. refers essentially to the importance of a phoneme in the phonemic inventory of the language
    functional load
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LIN 3713 Q#2
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