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2011-09-27 16:27:33

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  1. Explain the organizatino of the body (from smallest-->largest).
    1) Chemical level: atoms combine to form molecules.

    2) Cell level: Molecules form organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, which make up cells.

    3) Tissue level: Similiar cells & surrounding materials make up tissues.

    4) Organ level: Diff. tissues combine to form organs; stomach.

    5) Organ system level: Organs (stomach) make up an organ system.

    6) Organism level: Organ systems makes up an organism.
  2. What is the degestive organ system made up of?
    GI Tract: Mouth, esophogus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus.

    Liver, Pancreas & Gall Bladder: Involved in digestion & metabolism of foods and nutrients..
  3. Explain the GI Tract Flow.
    1) Mouth-->Esophogus-->Stomach-->Liver-->Gallbladder-->Small intestine-->Large intestine
  4. Define digestion & absorption.
    digestion: The process of breaking down foods into a form the body can use.

    e.g. starch to sugar.

    absorption: Uptake of nutrients from the GI tract into the blood or lymph.
  5. What are the four layers of the GI Tract.
    Mucosa: innermost layer.

    • Submucosa: contains blood vessels carrying nutrients.
    • Muscle: move food forward through contraction (very coordinated).
    • Seroa: Outside layer protects the tract.

    (slide 6, page 8)
  6. Define Sphincters.
    Muscles that control the flow of contents in the GI tract.

    ***You have no control over functions of sphincters.
  7. Define GI Motility.

    Peristalsis: contractions.

    Back & forth movement.

    Mass movements:
    Peristalsis over widespread area.


    (page 8 on slides)
  8. Define the Digestive System Secretions.

    (Secretion, site of production, and Function)

    Saliva: (mouth) contributes to starch digestion, lubrication, swallowing.

    Mucus: (mouth, stomach, small intestine, pancreas) Protects GI tract cells, lubricates digesting food.

    Enzymes: (mouth, stomach, small intestine, pancreas) Promotes digestion of carb., fats, & protein into forms small enough for absorption.

    Acid (HCL): (stomach) Promotes digestion of proten, destroys microorganisms, increases solubility of minerals.

    Bile: (Liver) Aids in fat digestion.

    Bicarbonate: (pancreas, small intestine) Neutralizes stomach acid when it reaches small intestine.

    Hormones: (stomach, small intestine) Regulates digestion & absorption.
  9. Enzymes are very significant for what to processes?
    Digestion & metabolism.
  10. Mouth (oral cavity), why do we chew food?
    Ability to swallow it.

    Increase surface area, thus, increasing availabilityto enzymes.
  11. Mixed w/ saliva, what does food become?
    a bolus.
  12. List & define the saliva components.

    Lysosome: breaks down bacteria.

    Mucus: lubricate & hold bolus together.

    Amylase (in your mouth) breaks down starch to sugar.
  13. Taste & Smell. What five tastes can the taste buds sense?
    1) Salty (sodium)

    2) Sour (acid)

    3) Sweet (sugar)

    4) Bitter (mostly phytochem. from plants)

    5) UMMI (in a variety of foods)
  14. Olfactory glands in the nose are used for what?
    Smell, and a big impact on taste.
  15. Name the three (3) types of tasters.
    1) Supertasters

    2) Tasters

    3) Non-tasters