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Explain the organizatino of the body (from smallest-->largest).
1) Chemical level: atoms combine to form molecules.
2) Cell level: Molecules form organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, which make up cells.
3) Tissue level: Similiar cells & surrounding materials make up tissues.
4) Organ level: Diff. tissues combine to form organs; stomach.
5) Organ system level: Organs (stomach) make up an organ system.
6) Organism level: Organ systems makes up an organism.
What is the degestive organ system made up of?
GI Tract: Mouth, esophogus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus.
Liver, Pancreas & Gall Bladder: Involved in digestion & metabolism of foods and nutrients..
Explain the GI Tract Flow.
1) Mouth-->Esophogus-->Stomach-->Liver-->Gallbladder-->Small intestine-->Large intestine
Define digestion & absorption.
digestion: The process of breaking down foods into a form the body can use.
e.g. starch to sugar.
absorption: Uptake of nutrients from the GI tract into the blood or lymph.
What are the four layers of the GI Tract.
- Submucosa: contains blood vessels carrying nutrients.
- Muscle: move food forward through contraction (very coordinated).
- Seroa: Outside layer protects the tract.
(slide 6, page 8)
Muscles that control the flow of contents in the GI tract.
***You have no control over functions of sphincters.
Define GI Motility.
Segmentation: Back & forth movement.
Mass movements: Peristalsis over widespread area.
(page 8 on slides)
Define the Digestive System Secretions.
(Secretion, site of production, and Function)
Saliva: (mouth) contributes to starch digestion, lubrication, swallowing.
Mucus: (mouth, stomach, small intestine, pancreas) Protects GI tract cells, lubricates digesting food.
Enzymes: (mouth, stomach, small intestine, pancreas) Promotes digestion of carb., fats, & protein into forms small enough for absorption.
Acid (HCL): (stomach) Promotes digestion of proten, destroys microorganisms, increases solubility of minerals.
Bile: (Liver) Aids in fat digestion.
Bicarbonate: (pancreas, small intestine) Neutralizes stomach acid when it reaches small intestine.
Hormones: (stomach, small intestine) Regulates digestion & absorption.
Enzymes are very significant for what to processes?
Digestion & metabolism.
Mouth (oral cavity), why do we chew food?
Ability to swallow it.
Increase surface area, thus, increasing availabilityto enzymes.
Mixed w/ saliva, what does food become?
List & define the saliva components.
Lysosome: breaks down bacteria.
Mucus: lubricate & hold bolus together.
Amylase (in your mouth) breaks down starch to sugar.
Taste & Smell. What five tastes can the taste buds sense?
1) Salty (sodium)
2) Sour (acid)
3) Sweet (sugar)
4) Bitter (mostly phytochem. from plants)
5) UMMI (in a variety of foods)
Olfactory glands in the nose are used for what?
Smell, and a big impact on taste.
Name the three (3) types of tasters.