Cytology

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Author:
Zshowbball333
ID:
104697
Filename:
Cytology
Updated:
2011-09-27 23:52:43
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Cytology
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Description:
Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. Two types of cells
    prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  2. primitive cells that lack a nucleus and membraneous organelles
    prokaryotes
  3. advanced cells because they have a nucleus and have membraneous organelles
    eukaryotes
  4. as a cell grows its SA/vol ratio..
    decreases
  5. when a cell divides the SA/vol ratio..
    increases
  6. why is it a disadvantage to have a large SA/vol ratio
    you need to eat so much
  7. what are some examples of large SA/vol ratios in Humans
    Lungs (specifically alveoli aka air sacs)

    Intestines (Villi)
  8. very outside of the cell
    plasma membrane
  9. made of phospholipids
    plasma membrane
  10. flexible but not extensible

    phospholipids and protein
    plasma membrane
  11. it is selectively permeable
    plasma membrane
  12. picky about what can enter and exit the cell
    selectively permeable
  13. foldings of the plasma membrane
    microvilli
  14. job is to increase the SA/col ratio
    microvilli
  15. found in intestines, kidneys, and bone cells
    microvilli
  16. numerous mobile projections of the plasma membrane
    cillia
  17. in humans they move materials
    cillia
  18. they are not used for cell movement
    cillia
  19. you can find cillia in the body in..
    bronchiole tubes and fallopion tubes
  20. single whip like structure that emerges from the plasma membrane
    flagellum
  21. moves the entire cell
    flagellum
  22. invagination of the plasma membrane
    endocytosis
  23. means to drink
    cell is taking in liquids and dissolved minerals
    pinocytosis
  24. means to eat
    taking in solids
    phagocytosis
  25. elimination from the cell through the cell membrane
    exocytosis
  26. the region of the cell outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane
    cytoplasm
  27. fluid component of cytoplasm
    cytosol
  28. a network of membraneous channels extending throughout the cytoplasm
    endoplasmic reticulum ER
  29. connected to the nuclear membrane
    ER
  30. ribosomes embedded on the surface
    Rough ER
  31. 2 functions of the rough ER
    • transport proteins
    • make membranes for some of the organelles
  32. lacks ribosomes
    smooth ER
  33. 4 functions of the smooth ER
    • detoxify poison (a lot in liver)
    • converts glucose to glycogen
    • synthesis of steroids and hormones
    • synthesis of lipids and carbs
  34. series of flattened sacs (cisternae)
    golgi apparatus
  35. 3 functions of the Golgi Apparatus
    • modifies and pachages secretions of hormones
    • renews or modifies the plasma membrane
    • produces lysosomes
  36. powerhouse of the cell because it produces ATP (adenosine triphasphate)
    Mitochondria
  37. contains cristae, which is membranes on the inside that increase the SA/col ratio
    Mitochondria
  38. cellular respiration occurs here
    mitochondria
  39. there numbers vary depending on the cells energy needs
    mitochondria
  40. 20% is mitochondria
    liver cells
  41. most if not all of mitochondria were inherited from
    mother
  42. mitochondria contain
    DNA
  43. considered the garbage disposal or suicide bag of the cell
    lysosome
  44. very prevalent in leukocytes (white blood cells)
    lysosomes
  45. contain very powerful hydrolitic enzymes
    lysosomes
  46. used for storage of wastes
    water glycogen fat etc
    vacuole
  47. very small in animal cells compared to plant cells
    vacuole
  48. contains very powerful enzymes which convert H2O2 into H2O
    peroxisome
  49. can be free floating or on the rough ER
    ribosome
  50. funcion is to link amino acids together (protein synthesis)
    ribosome
  51. formed by the nucleus
    ribosome
  52. cytoplasm surrounding the centrioles which helps to form the centrioles
    centrosome
  53. produce spindle fibers used during mitosis
    centrioles
  54. found in animal cells but not plant cells
    centrioles
  55. functions as the cells skeleton
    cytoskeleton
  56. gives the cell support or framework
    cytoskeleton
  57. determine the consistency of the cytoskeleton
    microfilaments
  58. proteins that give the cell strength and rigidity
    mircrotubules
  59. help anchor the cell in place
    microtubules
  60. hold adjacent cells together
    desmosome
  61. control center of the cell
    nucleus
  62. semi permeable with pores that allows mRNA to exit
    Nuclear Membrane
  63. name means little nucleus
    nucleolus
  64. creates ribosomes
    nucleolus
  65. synthesizes ribosomal RNA
    nucleolus
  66. threadlike strands of DNA
    chromatin
  67. Master Blueprint
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  68. copy of your DNA
    Ribonucleic acid
  69. carries information into cytoplasm
    Ribonucleic acid

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