A non-native speaker of English who is in the process of attaining proficiency in English.
English Language Learner (ELL)
The label for ELLs used in No Child Left Behind.
Limited English Proficient (LEP)
A student is ____a____ when they are labeled ____b_____--that is, determined to be no longer in need of ESL and are able to be placed in mainstream classrooms.
b. Fluent English Proficient (FEP)
Term for ELL; emphasizes students' development of both their native language AND English.
Label for ELL; when a student is fluent in English but lacks profinciency in their native language.
Language Minority Student
Label for ELL; when a student speaks the dominant societal language (English).
Language Majority Student
Students from homes where a language other than English is spoken, and who speak, or at least understand, some of that Language speak in a ..
1 out of __ Pre K-12 students are ELL students.
Which state has the most ELL students?
This belief recognizes that the first language and home culture of ELL students are not problems to overcome, but rich resources that can be used to help the students learn English and academic content.
Approach in which English replaces the native language which has a number of native consequences.
Approach in which English is added to the native language.
The study of sound systems is
The study of the structure of words is
The study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences is
The study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences is
The study of language in use is
The vocabulary of a language is its
A part of Academic Language proficiency which deals with "conversational fluency in a language."
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
A part of Academic Language proficiency which deals with "the ability to understand and express, in both oral and written, modes, concepts, and ideas that are relevant to success in school."
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
A branch of Communicative Competence: the ability to recognize the lexical, morphological, syntactic, and phonological features of a language and use them to interpret and form words and sentences.
A branch of Communicative Competence: the ability to connect a series of utterences, written words, or phrases to form a meaningful whole.
Branch of Communicative Competence: the ability to understand the social context in which language is used.
Branch of Communicative Competence: the ability to use coping strategies in unfamiliar contexts when imperfect knowlege of rules may lead to breakdown in communication.
Refers to variations in language, including the choice of words and grammar that reflect the social setting in which it is used.
Language Acquisition Theory which emphasizes stimulus and response and positive reinforcement.
Language Acquisition Theory in which Skinner plays a huge role.
Language Acquisition Theory which deals with Krashen's 5 Hypotheses.
Language Acquisition Theory which focuses on comprehensible input and the affective filter.
Understanding the things we hear or read.
Controls how much comprehensible input gets through to the learner.
Language Acquisition Theory which focuses on comprehensible output.
"When learners are in conversation, making an effort to produce language that the person with whom they are conversing can understand, they are more likely to see the limits of their second language abilities." This is referring to what?
Language Acquisition Theory which emphasizing Vygotsky, ZPD, and scaffolding.
Metaphoric state where children can reach a higher level of knowlege and performance with the support of a knowlegeable adult.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Teaching method which uses analysis and memorization of grammar rules; often involves translation of sentences between two languages.
Teaching method whoch was influenced by Behaviorism; involves memorization of dialogues and grammar.
Teaching method which applies Krashen's theories; emphasizes providing comprehensible output in an enjoyable classroom environment.
Teaching method which implements Communicative Competence.
Teaching method which focuses on a particular content area.
Passed in 1965; provided funds, policies, and procedures that target low-income families.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Provided grants to schools through a competetive grant process; Originally only given to Spanish-surnamed students.
Title VII Bilingual Education Act
Passed by George Dubya
Removed Title VII from ESEA
No Child Left Behind
Measurement defined by the United States federal No Child Left Behind Act that allows the U.S. Department of Education to determine how every public school and school district in the country is performing academically according to results on standardized tests.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
Indicate how much English language proficiency (reading, writing, speaking, listening, and comprehension) children served with Title III funds are expected to gain each year.
Annual Measurable Achievement Objective (AMAO)
Three "English for the Children Initiatives" which placed severe restrictions on bilingual education.
Proposition 227 (California, 1998)
Proposition 203 (Arizona, 2000)
Question 2 (Mass., 2002)
Promises equal protection for education.
14th Amendment of the Constitution
Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson's ruling: "Seperate but equal."
Brown v. Board of Education
Outlawed submersion for ELLs.
"Sink or swim"
Lau v. Nichols
Required districts to implement bilingual programs; specified proper procedures for identifying and placing ELL students.
English Language instruction for students who have been identified as ELL.
English as a Second Language (ESL)
Term used for ESL in CA and other states--particularly at the elementary level.
English Language Development (ELD)
- Students learn best in the language they understand.
- Ensures they learn complex academic content while learning English.
- Follows the same content standards established for native speakers.
Native Language (L1) Instruction
Another name for Sheltered Instruction is..
Specifically Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)