HUN CH3 Exam 1

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bkheath
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104715
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HUN CH3 Exam 1
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2011-09-27 18:09:49
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HUN CH3 Exam
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HUN CH3 Exam 1
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  1. Mvmt of food particles into circulation
    Absorption
  2. Mvmt of nutrients into body cells
    Transport
  3. Layers of GI tract starting from outside inward
    • Connective tissue
    • Smooth muscle layers
    • Connective tissue
    • Mucosa
    • Lumen
  4. Produces bile
    Liver
  5. Stores, concentrates, releases bile
    Gallbladder
  6. Releases bicarbonate & dig enzymes
    Pancreas
  7. Location of 3 diff muscle layers & what are they
    • Stomach;
    • circular, longitudinal, diagonal
  8. Muscle mvmt in the small intestine; back & forth mvmt which mixes chyme
    Segmentation
  9. 1st phase of digestion
    cephalic phase (senses)
  10. 2nd phase digestion
    • Gastric phase (stomach)
    • 3-4 hrs
  11. 3rd phase digestion
    • Intestinal phase (most chem digestion)
    • starts when food enters duodenum
  12. In mouth, starch broken down into:
    dextrin + maltose
  13. In mouth, lingual lipase breaks triglyceride into:
    Diglyceride + FA
  14. Enzyme secreted in mouth which kills bacteria
    Lysozyme
  15. ____ controls entry of food into stomach
    Esophageal (cardiac) sphincter
  16. Hormone secreted by stomach wall which stimulates gastric secretion, pepsin production, mvmt, & stimulates stomach glands
    Gastrin
  17. HCL secretion in stomach has 4 purposes
    • Denature protein
    • Activate pepsin (protein digesting enzyme)
    • Turns off salivary amylase
    • Kills bacteria
  18. Enzymes secreted into stomach:
    • Gastric lipase
    • Pepsin
  19. Enzyme which has a higher affinity for TG with short/med chain FA
    Gastric lipase
  20. Inactive form of pepsin which is activated by HCL in stomach & brks protein into smaller pep chains
    Pepsinogen
  21. ___ controls flow of chyme into small int
    Pyloric sphincter
  22. 3 parts of small int
    • Duodenum (beginning)
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum (end-nearest lrg int)
  23. Hormone released by duodenal mucosa which stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate which neutralizes acid chyme & inhibits gastrin release
    Secretin
  24. Hormone released by int wall which stimulates pancreas to secrete enzymes, GB to release bile, & slows GI mvmt
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
  25. Hormone released by int wall which stimulates insulin secretion & has receptors on pancreatic beta-cells
    Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP)
  26. 2 Pancreatic Proteases (inactive & active forms) which brk proteins into small peps & AAs
    • Trypsinogen, trypsin
    • Chymotrypsinogen, chymotrypsin
  27. Enzymes produced by intestinal mucosal cells & finish brkdown of proteins into AAs, di- & tripeptides
    Peptidases
  28. Enzyme which is primary for starch digestion into maltose
    Pancreatic amylase
  29. Enzymes which are produced by int mucosal cells & brkdown disaccs to monosaccs
    Disaccharidases
  30. Sucrase enzyme brks __ into __
    Sucrose==> glucose + fructose
  31. Lactase brks __ into __
    Lactose==> glucose + galactose
  32. Maltase brks __ into __
    Maltose==> glucose + glucose
  33. Primary enzyme for TG digestion
    Pancreatic Lipase
  34. Pancreatic lipase brks __ into __
    TG==> monoglyceride + 2 FA

    (some free glycerol also)
  35. Microflora in large int produce gases & ____ provide ____. Also provide us with ___. Also help digest __.
    • Acids (like short chain FAs)
    • energy for colonocytes (cells which line int)
    • vit K & B12
    • Fiber
  36. Location of absorption of most nutrients into blood
    Villus of small int which has capillaries throughout
  37. Location of absorption of lipids & fat sol vitamins into lymph
    Lacteal of each villus of small int
  38. Particles which require active transport (energy + carrier)
    Minerals, some sugars, most AAs
  39. Monosaccs which require active transport:
    Monosaccs which pass by facilitated diffusion:
    • Glucose, galactose
    • Fructose
  40. Carbs & proteins steps of absorption into circulation:
    • Lumen
    • Mucosal cell
    • Capillaries
    • Portal vein
    • Liver
  41. Glycerol & short-chain FA steps of absorption into circ
    • Diffuse into mucosal cells
    • Capillaries
    • Portal Vein
    • Liver
  42. Mono-, diglycerides, long-chain FAs, cholesterol, phospholipds steps of absorption into circ
    • 1) Micelles form in lumen (bile surrounding lipid)
    • 2) Lipids diffuse in mucosal cells
    • ----TG reassemble
    • ----Bile recycled bk to lumen
    • ----Chylomicron forms (TG+chol+phosphlip+protein)
    • 3) To circ
    • ----Chylomicron enter lacteal (lymph vessel) then go to blood & remnants taken up by liver
    • ----TG released to cells
  43. Fate of bile:
    • Reabsorbed & recycled by liver OR
    • Trapped by fiber & excreted in feces
  44. 2 types ulcers & cause
    • Duodenal
    • Peptide
    • Anti-inflammatory meds, lots acid production
  45. Infection which causes swelling & inflammation of a pouch in lrg int wall
    Diverticulitis
  46. Presence of inflammed pouches of lrg int
    Diverticulosis
  47. GALT (__) includes:
    • Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissues
    • Peyer's patches (accumulation of immune cells)
  48. __ to __ species of bacteria in colon
    300-500
  49. Delivery system of nutrients into body via cardiovascular system: (3)
    • Blood circ
    • Hepatic portal circ
    • Lymphatics- lipid soluble molecs

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