Math Chapter 1 and 2

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  1. Inductive reasoning
    method used for drawing conclusions from a limited set of observations. General----> Specific
  2. deductive reasoning
    logic to draw conclusions from statements already accepted as true.
  3. point
    • -zero dimensions
    • -has locations only
    • -capital letter (A,B,C)
  4. line
    • straight path with no thickness (one dimension)
    • infinite number of points
    • extended without end in both directions
  5. line segment
    part of a line thats bounded by two end points
  6. plane
    • flat unbounded (infinite) surface with no thickness
    • two dimensional
    • represented by a parallelogram
    • capital letter in corner
  7. colinear
    points contained by the same line
  8. coplaner
    points that contained in the same plane
  9. noncollinear
    points not on a single line
  10. concurrent
    lines that contain a common point
  11. ray
    • part of a line that extends endlessly in one direction
    • name using endpoints first
    • symbol points to the right
  12. angle
    • a pair of rays that share the same endpoint
    • sides: rays
    • vertex common endpoint
    • name using 3 points
  13. polygon
    • lies in a plane
    • bounded by line segments
    • two dimensional
  14. polyhedron
    • lies in space
    • bounded by polygons (no curves)
    • three dimensional
  15. perimeter
    • sume of the lengths of its sides
    • measured in units
  16. area
    surface included in square units or units2
  17. circle
    set of all points that are a fixed distance or radius from a given point in the plane.
  18. constructions
    created with straightedge and compass
  19. bisect
    to divide into two equal parts
  20. quadrilateral formula
    A= 1/4(a+c)(b+d)
  21. conditional statements
    consists of two clauses, one which begins with the word "if" or "when" or some equivalent word
  22. hypothesis
    the letter a or "if"
  23. conclusion
    the letter b or "then"
  24. Euler diagram
    uses circles to illustrate how conditional statements relate to each other
  25. converse
    statement found by interchanging the hypothesis and conclusion of the conditional statement
  26. contrapositive
    statement formed by interchanging the a and b and denying both
  27. inverse
    formed by denying both a and b
  28. syllogism
    • an argument in the from
    • a--> b
    • b--> c
    • a-->c
  29. Direct Proof
    argument of syllogism
  30. premises
    statements of the arguement
  31. conclusion
    conncets the first to the last
  32. theorem
    statement that is proved by reasoning deductively from already accepted statements
  33. Indirect proof
    assumption made at the beginning that leads to a contradiction. The contradiction indicates that the assumption is false and the desired conclusion is true
  34. circularity
    impossible to define everything without going around in circles
  35. undefined words
    • point
    • line
    • plane
  36. postulate
    statement assumed to be true without proof
  37. "determine"
    if there are two points, then there is exactly one line that contains them
  38. Pythagorean Theorem
    • a2+b2= c2
    • (must be a right angle)
  39. Triangle Sum Theorem
    the sum of the angles of a triangle is 180o
  40. Circle Theorems
    • if the diameter of a circle is d, its circumference is pi-d
    • If the radius of a circle is r, its area is pi-r2
Card Set
Math Chapter 1 and 2
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