HUN Exam 1 Ch4

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bkheath
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104771
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HUN Exam 1 Ch4
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2011-09-27 20:42:04
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HUN Exam Ch4
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HUN Exam 1 Ch4
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  1. Monosaccarides have a ___ carbon ring
    6
  2. Glucose aka
    Found in:
    • Dextrose
    • Fruit, veg, honey
  3. Fructose aka
    Found in:
    • Levulose
    • Fruit, honey, corn syrup
  4. Sucrose =
    aka
    • Glucose + Fructose
    • Table sugar
  5. AA broken down by:
    Lipids broken down by:
    Glucose broken down by:
    • Deamination
    • Beta oxidation
    • Glycolysis
  6. Condensation vs Hydrolysis
    • Synthesis, releases water; enzyme catalyzed
    • Digestion, requires water
  7. Polysaccarides > ____ monosaccs
    10
  8. Polysacc sources
    starch, glycogen, fiber
  9. Oligosaccs: __ to __ monosaccs
    3-10
  10. 2 types of starch
    • Amylose (straight chain)
    • Amylopectine (branched chain)
  11. Dietary vs functional fiber
    • Nondigestive carbs; intrinsic to plants
    • Nondigestive carbs; added to foods
  12. Fiber has __ glucose chains which has linkages b/w monosaccs that can't be digested
    long
  13. Insoluble fibers (3)
    Cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins
  14. Soluble fibers (4)
    Pectins, gums, mucilages, Beta-glucans
  15. Which type of fiber is extracted & used as food additive
    Soluble
  16. Refined grains only contain ___ of the grain kernal
    endosperm
  17. Only abt __% of proteins are used for energy, they are mainly used for other processes, such as:
    • 10
    • making hormones, enzymes, antibodies, transport
  18. Process of using body protein to make glucose when inadequate glucose avail
    Gluconeogenesis
  19. Ketosis
    Condition when insufficient glucose avail to brk down fat, so ketone bodies are formed, increased water loss, and chgs in acid/base balance (ketoacidosis)
  20. Binds to cholesterol in int
    Fiber (viscous fibers)
  21. Amt of kcal per g of fiber
    ~1.5 kcal/g
  22. Rise in blood glucose signals ____ which stimulates ___ which causes ____
    release of insulin from pancreas which stimulates cells to take up glucose, causing blood glucose levels to fall
  23. Role of glucagon
    Is released from pancreas when blood glucose is low, stimulating liver to brkdn glycogen to glucose, and bs to rise
  24. Undigested lactose causes __ (2)
    osmotic diarrhea & gas production by bacteria
  25. AMDR =
    Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
  26. Expressed as % of total en intake; range of intakes that prevents chronic disease while providing adequate essential nutrients
    AMDR
  27. RDA of carb
    130 g/d
  28. DV of carb
    300 g/d
  29. AMDR of added sugars < or = ____ %
    25%
  30. Discretionary calories
    what leeway u have after eating foods that meet your daily needs
  31. Suggestion of added sugar daily in tsp & kcal
    8, 120 kcal
  32. Fructose raises ___, may boost ___, inc risk of ___
    • TG
    • visceral fat deposition
    • gout
  33. AI of fiber in M & F
    • 38 g/d M
    • 25 g/d F
  34. How much fiber need to protect against heart disease
    14 g/1000 kcal
  35. DV fiber
    25 g/d
  36. Bacteria which causes tooth decay
    S. mutans
  37. Plaque pH <
    5.5
  38. Type I Diabetes: insulin:
    ~__%
    Cause
    • no insulin produced
    • 10%
    • Genetics, immune prob
  39. Type II Diabetes: insulin
    ~__%
    Cause
    • resistance to insulin
    • 90%
    • Meds, inactivity, race, hypertension, preg, high bp or chol, stress, obesity, increasing age, family history
  40. How does exercise improve diabetes
    Muscle contractions cause uptake of glucose which is independent of insulin
  41. Bile is synthesized from ___ so when ___ binds to bile, it is lowered
    cholesterol; fiber
  42. Artificial sweetener which is derivative of petroleum
    Saccharin (Sweet and Low)
  43. Chem composition of aspartame (Equal or Nutrasweet)
    Aspartic acid + phenylalanine + methyl group
  44. Condition where phenylalanine builds up in blood & causes brain probs b/c phenylalanine can't be broken down to tyrosine
    Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  45. Brand name acesulfame-K
    Sunett
  46. Sweetener which can be used in cooking & made from sugar
    Sucralose (Splenda)
  47. Calories of sugar alcohols
    2-4 kcal/g

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