Nervous System 1

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mjchargu
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104781
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Nervous System 1
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2011-09-27 21:38:06
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Nervous System
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Nervous System 1
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  1. brain
    portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
  2. cerebrum
    largest portion of the brain; it is divided into right and left halves known as cerebral hemisphers that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum.
  3. central nervous system (CNS)
    brain and spinal cord
  4. frontal lobe
    anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
  5. parietal lobe
    portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
  6. temporal lobe
    portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
  7. occipital lobe
    portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
  8. cerebral cortex
    outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental functions (cortex = bark)
  9. thalamus
    two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
  10. gyri
    ring or circle; convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
  11. sulci
    ditch; shallow grooves that separate gyri
  12. fissures
    splitting crack; deep grooves in the brain
  13. cerebellum
    portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
  14. brainstem
    region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; there are three levels: mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
  15. ventricles
    series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluidClick to flip
  16. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
  17. spinal cord
    column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
  18. meninges
    three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
  19. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
  20. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glandsClick to flip
  21. aphasia
    condition without speech; impairment due to localized brain injury that affects understanding, retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language
  22. dysphasia
    condition of difficult articulation; group of related speech impairment that may affect the speed, range, direction, strength, and timing of motor movement as a result of paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles (arthr/o = articulation)
  23. coma
    general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow coma scaleClick to flip
  24. delirium
    state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function--there are many causes, including fever, shock, or drug overdose (deliro = to draw the furrow awry in plowing, i.e., to go off the rails)
  25. dementia
    impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion (dementio = to be mad)
  26. neuralgia
    pain along the course of a nerve
  27. paralysis
    temporary or permanent loss of motor control. Flaccid paralysis: defective (flabby) or absent uscle control caused by a nerve lesion. Spastic paralysis: stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder. Hemiparesis: partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
  28. sciatica
    pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve of its roots
  29. seizure
    sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses (may or may not be associated with convulsion). Convulsion: to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
  30. syncope
    fainting
  31. Alzheimer disease
    disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
  32. cerebral palsy (CP)
    condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordition (palsy = paralysis)
  33. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease (e.g., occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus or thrombus or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm)
  34. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit (impairment)--often precedes a CVA
  35. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  36. epilepsy
    disorder affecting the central nervous sytem characterized by recurrent seizures. Tonic-clonic: stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups--previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure. Absence: seizure involving a brief loss of consciousnes without motor involvement--previously termed petit mal (little bad) seizure. Partial: seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms.
  37. Huntington disease
    hereditary disease of the central nervous system
  38. meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  39. multiple sclerosis (MS)
    disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurological dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
  40. narcolepsy
    sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
  41. Parkinson disease
    condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine ( a chemical neurotransmitter that is necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor; rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia), usually occurring later in life
  42. plegia
    paralysis. Hemiplegia: paralysis on one side of the body. Paraplegia: paralysis from the waist down. Quadriplegia: paralysis of all four limbs
  43. sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring

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