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Major transport system of the body that moves oxygen, glucose, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes, and cell wastes.
Body's defense that carries white blood cells and antibodies.
Mechanism for controlling body temperature and distributes heat to peripheral tissues.
Medium through which body fluid levels and blood pressure are measured and adjusted.
Number of liters of blood in an adult?
55% Component of blood.
Water and dissolved solutes.
45% Component of blood.
Cells or formed elements such as arythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes/platelets.
Proportion of red blood cells in blood.
Percent of hematocrit in males and females.
Clear yellowish fluid - cells have been removed.
Fluid and solutes - cells and fibrinogen have been removed.
Maintain osmotic pressure in the blood. Albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, antibodies.
Where all blood cells originate from?
Red bone marrow. That is found in flat, irregular bones, ribs, vertebrae, sternum, pelvis.
Red Blood Cells
Shape and Structure of Erythrocyte
- Biconcave, flexible discs.
- Non-nucleated when mature.
- Contain hemoglobin.
- Size and structure essential for easy passage through small blood vessels.
Hormone from kidney.
Stimulates erythrocyte production.
Response to tissue hypoxia.
Red Blood Cell Production Raw Materials
Amino acids, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and folic acid.
Parts that make up hemoglobin.
Globin + 2 pairs of amino acid chians + 4 heme groups.
Fully saturated with oxygen in the lungs.
Oxyhemeglobin is bright red (arterial)
As blood circulates, oxygen dissociates from hemeglobin.
Deoxygemeglobin - blueish - red (venous)
When a RBC dies, globin is broken down into...
Amino acids which get recycled and iron that is recycled by the liver or bone marrow.
When a RBC dies, heme is broken down it is...
Converted into bilirubin and transported to the liver and excreted in bile.
Production of white blood cells. Stimulated by CSFs produced by macrophages and T-lymphocytes.
When WBCs leave capillaries and enter tissues by...
50-60% of WBC
Survive only 4 days
First to respond to tissue damage
Migrate from blood to tissue to become mast cells
Release heparin and histamine
Combat effects of histamine
Increased by allergic reactions and parasitic infections
B and T
30-40% of WBCs
Enter tissues to become macrophages
Another name for platelets
Part of blood that is essential for blood clotting.
Made of megakaryocytes.
Stick to damaged tissue and each other to form plug.
Initiate the coagulation process.
Another name for blood clotting.
Blood clotting steps (3)
Vasoconstriction. Thrombocytes adhere to injured tissue. Coagulation.
Breaking up of clot.
Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies
Can recieve only same blood
Can recieve O and A
Can recieve O and B
A and B antigens
Receive all blood types
Functions of Lymphatic System
- Return to excess interstitial fluid and protein to the blood.
- Filter and destroy unwated material from body fluids.
- Initiate immune response.
Component of Lymphatic System that remove foreign or unwanted material from lymph fluid before it enters general circulation.
Lymph Nodes and Lymphoid Tissue
Essential to immune response and sensitization of B and T lymphocytes.
Reduction in oxygen transport in the blood due to a decrease in hemoglobin.
Low hemoglobin or anemia results of...
- Declining production
- Decrease in erythrocytes
Decrease energy produced in all cells; cell metabolism and reproduction decreases
Effect of anemia
Tachycardia and vasoconstriction
Effect of anemia to compensate to oxygenate tissues
Deficiency of a required nutrient
Bone function impaired
Excessive desruction of erythrocytes
Causes of anemia
In small, less color erythrocytes
Iron Deficiency Anemia results
Low dietary intake
Chronic blood loss
Severe liver disease
Iron Deficiency Anemia causes
Brittle hair, concave nails
Tachycardia, dypnea, and synoscope
Iron Deficiency Anemia signs and symptoms
Another name for pernicious anemia
Very large, immature, nucleated erythrocyes
Type of anemia that usually results from a deficit of folic acid or vitamin B12, pregnancy.
Pernicious Anemia Results from...
Cause of pernicious anemia
Malabsorption or result of gastrectomy
Decreased gastric juices leads to GI discomfort, nausea and diarrhea
Pernicious Anemia signs and symptoms
Bone marrow is hyperactive
Vit B12 is low
Diagnostic Test of pernicious anemia
Impairment of failure of bone marrow function from radiation, chemicals, drugs, hep c, autoimmune disease.
Cause of aplastic anemia
Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia
Signs and symptoms of aplastic anemia
CBC and bone marrow biopsy
Diagnostic tests for aplastic anemia
Blood transfusion or bone marrow transplant
Treatment for aplastic anemia
Result of excessive destruction of RBCs
Leads to low erythrocyte count and low total hemoglobin
Causes genetic disorders, immune reactions, blood incompatibility
Inherited characteristic leads to abnormal hemoglobin
Hbs is deoxygenated and crystalilized and changes shape
Pain caused from occluded blood vessels
Most normal hemoglobin replaced by HbS, creates clinical signs of sickle cell. ss
1/2 hemeglobin is replaced by HbS. Ss
Reduce crisis with drugs
Avoidance of strenous activity
Prevent dehydration, acidosis, infection, and exposure to cold
Sickle Cell Treatment
Genetic defect in which one or more genes for hemoglobin are missing or variant
Interferes with the production of globin chains
Decrease or lack of alpha or beta chains
Normal skeletal development is impaired
Child growth impaired
Thalassemia Signs and Symptoms
Thalassemia Diagnositc Test
Treatment of Thalassemia
Increased production of erythrocytes and other cells in bone marrow
Increased blood volume
Blood vessels distended and blood flow is sluggish
Increase in RBCs that occurs in response to prolonged hypoxia and increased erythropoietin secretion
Neoplastic disorder of unknown origin
Develops btwn age 40 and 60
A compensatory mechanism
Increased bp, full bounding pulse
Polycythemia Signs and Symptoms
Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels are increased
Bone marrow is hypercellular
Diagnostic Test Polycythemia
Drugs or radiation to supress bone marrow
Periodic phlebotomy to remove blood
Treatment of Polycythemia
Blood in feces
Feeling faint and anxious, low bp, rapid pulse
Warning signs of blood clotting disorders
Vit K deficiency
Causes of excessive bleeding in a blood clotting disorder
Most common inherited clotting disorder
Deficit or abnormality of clotting factor IX
Hemophilia B (Christmas disease)
Deficit or abnomality of clotting factor XI
Hemophilia C (Rosenthal's)
70% have severe form
Blood in urine
PTT and coagulation are prolonged
Diagnostic Test Hemophilia A
Precautions to prevent injury
Replacement therapy for factor VIII
Treatment for Hemophilia A
Excessive bleeding and clotting
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - DIC
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - DIC
Multiple Bleeding Sites
Acute Renal Failure
- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - DIC
- Signs and Symptoms
One or more of the leukocyte types are present as undifferentiated, immature, nonfuctional that multiply uncontrollably in the bone marrow
High proportion of very immatue, nonfuctional cells (blast cells) in bone marrow and peripheral circulations
Higher proportion of mature cells (have reduced function)
Onset marked by infection unresponsive to treatment or excessive bleeding
Weight loss and fatigue
Leukemia Signs and Symptoms
Blood smear shoes immature leukocytes and altered numbers of WBCs
RBCs and platelets are decreased
Leukemia Diagnostic Test
Chemotherapy only treatment
Hodgkins and Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma
Malignant neoplasm involving lymphocyte proliferation in the lymph nodes
Occurs in age 20-40
Equal in men and women
Prognosis early is excellent
Initially involves one lymph node (neck) then spreads in orderly fashion.
Reed-Sternberg cells (giant cell)
Hodgkins - Stage I
Single lymph node or region affected
Hodgkins - Stage II
Two or more lymph nodes or regions affected on same side of diaphragm
Hodgkins - Stage III
Nodes on both sides of the diaphragm and the spleen
Hodgkins - Stage IV
diffuse extralymphatic involvement
Lymph node large, painless, nontender
Weight loss, anemia, low grade fever, night sweats, faituge
Hodgkins Signs and Symtoms
Radiation, chemo, surgery treatments
Associated with HIV infection
Involve B lymphocytes
Multiple tumors with bone destruction develop in vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, and skull
Tumor cells spread throughout body
Malignancy well advance before diagnosis
Median survival is 3 years
Analgesics for bone pain