Patho

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swimmin4fun247
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104796
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Patho
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2011-09-28 00:46:04
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Patho
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  1. Major transport system of the body that moves oxygen, glucose, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes, and cell wastes.
    Blood
  2. Body's defense that carries white blood cells and antibodies.
    Blood
  3. Mechanism for controlling body temperature and distributes heat to peripheral tissues.
    Blood
  4. Medium through which body fluid levels and blood pressure are measured and adjusted.
    Blood
  5. Number of liters of blood in an adult?
    5 Liters
  6. 55% Component of blood.
    Water and dissolved solutes.
  7. 45% Component of blood.
    Cells or formed elements such as arythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes/platelets.
  8. Proportion of red blood cells in blood.
    Hematocrit
  9. Percent of hematocrit in males and females.
    • Males - 48%
    • Females - 42%
  10. Clear yellowish fluid - cells have been removed.
    Plasma
  11. Fluid and solutes - cells and fibrinogen have been removed.
    Serum
  12. Maintain osmotic pressure in the blood. Albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, antibodies.
    Plasma Proteins
  13. Where all blood cells originate from?
    Red bone marrow. That is found in flat, irregular bones, ribs, vertebrae, sternum, pelvis.
  14. Red Blood Cells
    Erythrocytes
  15. Shape and Structure of Erythrocyte
    • Biconcave, flexible discs.
    • Non-nucleated when mature.
    • Contain hemoglobin.
    • Size and structure essential for easy passage through small blood vessels.
  16. Hormone from kidney.
    Stimulates erythrocyte production.
    Response to tissue hypoxia.
    Erythropoietin
  17. Red Blood Cell Production Raw Materials
    Amino acids, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and folic acid.
  18. Parts that make up hemoglobin.
    Globin + 2 pairs of amino acid chians + 4 heme groups.
  19. Fully saturated with oxygen in the lungs.
    Oxyhemeglobin is bright red (arterial)
  20. As blood circulates, oxygen dissociates from hemeglobin.
    Deoxygemeglobin - blueish - red (venous)
  21. When a RBC dies, globin is broken down into...
    Amino acids which get recycled and iron that is recycled by the liver or bone marrow.
  22. When a RBC dies, heme is broken down it is...
    Converted into bilirubin and transported to the liver and excreted in bile.
  23. Leukocytes
    WBC
  24. Leukopoiesis
    Production of white blood cells. Stimulated by CSFs produced by macrophages and T-lymphocytes.
  25. When WBCs leave capillaries and enter tissues by...
    Diapedesis
  26. 50-60% of WBC
    Survive only 4 days
    First to respond to tissue damage
    Neutrophils
  27. Migrate from blood to tissue to become mast cells
    Release heparin and histamine
    Basophils
  28. Combat effects of histamine
    Increased by allergic reactions and parasitic infections
    Eosinophils
  29. B and T
    30-40% of WBCs
    Lymphocytes
  30. Enter tissues to become macrophages
    Monocytes
  31. Another name for platelets
    Thrombocytes
  32. Part of blood that is essential for blood clotting.
    Made of megakaryocytes.
    Stick to damaged tissue and each other to form plug.
    Initiate the coagulation process.
    Thrombocytes
  33. Another name for blood clotting.
    Hemostasis
  34. Blood clotting steps (3)
    Vasoconstriction. Thrombocytes adhere to injured tissue. Coagulation.
  35. Breaking up of clot.
    Fibrinolysis
  36. Coagulation
    Clot formation
  37. No antigens
    Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies
    Can recieve only same blood
    O
  38. A antigen
    Anti-B antibodies
    Can recieve O and A
    A
  39. B antigen
    Anti-A antibodies
    Can recieve O and B
    B
  40. A and B antigens
    No antibodies
    Receive all blood types
    AB
  41. Functions of Lymphatic System
    • Return to excess interstitial fluid and protein to the blood.
    • Filter and destroy unwated material from body fluids.
    • Initiate immune response.
  42. Component of Lymphatic System that remove foreign or unwanted material from lymph fluid before it enters general circulation.
    Lymph Nodes and Lymphoid Tissue
  43. Essential to immune response and sensitization of B and T lymphocytes.
    Lymph Nodes
  44. Reduction in oxygen transport in the blood due to a decrease in hemoglobin.
    Anemia
  45. Low hemoglobin or anemia results of...
    • Declining production
    • Decrease in erythrocytes
    • Combination
  46. Decrease energy produced in all cells; cell metabolism and reproduction decreases
    Effect of anemia
  47. Tachycardia and vasoconstriction
    Effect of anemia to compensate to oxygenate tissues
  48. Deficiency of a required nutrient
    Bone function impaired
    Blood loss
    Excessive desruction of erythrocytes
    Causes of anemia
  49. In small, less color erythrocytes
    Iron Deficiency Anemia results
  50. Low dietary intake
    Chronic blood loss
    Impaired absorption
    Severe liver disease
    Iron Deficiency Anemia causes
  51. Cold intolerance
    Irriability
    Brittle hair, concave nails
    Delayed healing
    Tachycardia, dypnea, and synoscope
    Iron Deficiency Anemia signs and symptoms
  52. Another name for pernicious anemia
    Megaloblastic anemia
  53. Very large, immature, nucleated erythrocyes
    Megaloblasic
  54. Type of anemia that usually results from a deficit of folic acid or vitamin B12, pregnancy.
    Pernicious Anemia Results from...
  55. Cause of pernicious anemia
    Malabsorption or result of gastrectomy
  56. Decreased gastric juices leads to GI discomfort, nausea and diarrhea
    Enlarged tongue
    Pernicious Anemia signs and symptoms
  57. Bone marrow is hyperactive
    Vit B12 is low
    Diagnostic Test of pernicious anemia
  58. Impairment of failure of bone marrow function from radiation, chemicals, drugs, hep c, autoimmune disease.
    Cause of aplastic anemia
  59. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia
    Signs and symptoms of aplastic anemia
  60. CBC and bone marrow biopsy
    Diagnostic tests for aplastic anemia
  61. Blood transfusion or bone marrow transplant
    Treatment for aplastic anemia
  62. Result of excessive destruction of RBCs
    Leads to low erythrocyte count and low total hemoglobin
    Causes genetic disorders, immune reactions, blood incompatibility
    Hemolytic Anemias
  63. Inherited characteristic leads to abnormal hemoglobin
    Sickle Cell
  64. Hbs is deoxygenated and crystalilized and changes shape
    Sickle Cell
  65. Pain caused from occluded blood vessels
    Sickle Cell
  66. Homozygotes
    Most normal hemoglobin replaced by HbS, creates clinical signs of sickle cell. ss
  67. Heterozyotes
    1/2 hemeglobin is replaced by HbS. Ss
  68. Reduce crisis with drugs
    Avoidance of strenous activity
    Prevent dehydration, acidosis, infection, and exposure to cold
    Sickle Cell Treatment
  69. Genetic defect in which one or more genes for hemoglobin are missing or variant
    Thalassemia
  70. Interferes with the production of globin chains
    Thalassemia
  71. Decrease or lack of alpha or beta chains
    Thalassemia Types
  72. Hemolysis
    Normal skeletal development is impaired
    Child growth impaired
    Thalassemia Signs and Symptoms
  73. Iron Overload
    Thalassemia Diagnositc Test
  74. Blood transfusions
    Iron chelation
    Splenectomy
    Treatment of Thalassemia
  75. Increased production of erythrocytes and other cells in bone marrow
    Increased blood volume
    Blood vessels distended and blood flow is sluggish
    Primary Polycythemia
  76. Increase in RBCs that occurs in response to prolonged hypoxia and increased erythropoietin secretion
    Secondary Polycythemia
  77. Neoplastic disorder of unknown origin
    Develops btwn age 40 and 60
    Primary Polycemia
  78. A compensatory mechanism
    Secondary Polycemia
  79. Cyanosis
    Pruritus
    Increased bp, full bounding pulse
    CHF develops
    Polycythemia Signs and Symptoms
  80. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels are increased
    Bone marrow is hypercellular
    Diagnostic Test Polycythemia
  81. Drugs or radiation to supress bone marrow
    Periodic phlebotomy to remove blood
    Treatment of Polycythemia
  82. Persistent bleeding
    Blood in feces
    Feeling faint and anxious, low bp, rapid pulse
    Warning signs of blood clotting disorders
  83. Chemotherapy, radiation
    Vit K deficiency
    Liver Disease
    Hemorrhagic fever
    Anticoagulant drugs
    Causes of excessive bleeding in a blood clotting disorder
  84. Most common inherited clotting disorder
    Hemophilia A
  85. Deficit or abnormality of clotting factor IX
    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease)
  86. Deficit or abnomality of clotting factor XI
    Hemophilia C (Rosenthal's)
  87. 70% have severe form
    Prolonged hemorrhage
    Persistent oozing
    Hematomas
    Blood in urine
    Hemophilia A
  88. PTT and coagulation are prolonged
    Diagnostic Test Hemophilia A
  89. Precautions to prevent injury
    Replacement therapy for factor VIII
    Treatment for Hemophilia A
  90. Excessive bleeding and clotting
    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - DIC
  91. Obstetric complications
    Infection
    Cancer
    Major trauma

    Initate.....
    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - DIC
  92. Multiple Bleeding Sites
    Respiratory Impairment
    Seizures
    Acute Renal Failure
    • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - DIC
    • Signs and Symptoms
  93. One or more of the leukocyte types are present as undifferentiated, immature, nonfuctional that multiply uncontrollably in the bone marrow
    Leukemias
  94. High proportion of very immatue, nonfuctional cells (blast cells) in bone marrow and peripheral circulations
    Acute Leukemia
  95. Higher proportion of mature cells (have reduced function)
    Chronic Leukemia
  96. Onset marked by infection unresponsive to treatment or excessive bleeding
    Bone pain
    Weight loss and fatigue
    Fever
    Enlarged spleen
    Leukemia Signs and Symptoms
  97. Blood smear shoes immature leukocytes and altered numbers of WBCs
    RBCs and platelets are decreased
    Leukemia Diagnostic Test
  98. Chemotherapy only treatment
    Leukemia
  99. Lymphomas disorders
    Hodgkins and Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma
  100. Malignant neoplasm involving lymphocyte proliferation in the lymph nodes
    Lymphomas
  101. Occurs in age 20-40
    Equal in men and women
    Prognosis early is excellent
    Initially involves one lymph node (neck) then spreads in orderly fashion.
    Hodgkins Disease
  102. Reed-Sternberg cells (giant cell)
    Hodgkins Disease
  103. Hodgkins - Stage I
    Single lymph node or region affected
  104. Hodgkins - Stage II
    Two or more lymph nodes or regions affected on same side of diaphragm
  105. Hodgkins - Stage III
    Nodes on both sides of the diaphragm and the spleen
  106. Hodgkins - Stage IV
    diffuse extralymphatic involvement
  107. Lymph node large, painless, nontender
    Recurrent infection
    Weight loss, anemia, low grade fever, night sweats, faituge
    Hodgkins Signs and Symtoms
  108. Radiation, chemo, surgery treatments
    Hodgkins
  109. Associated with HIV infection
    Involve B lymphocytes
    Widespread metastases
    Non-Hodgkins
  110. Multiple tumors with bone destruction develop in vertebrae, ribs, pelvis, and skull
    Hypercalcemia
    Tumor cells spread throughout body
    Older adults
    Multiple Myeloma
  111. Malignancy well advance before diagnosis
    Pain
    Ademia
    Fractures
    Kidney failure
    Multiple Myeloma
  112. Median survival is 3 years
    Analgesics for bone pain
    Multiple Myeloma

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