INTD Review: Chapter 1

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INTD Review: Chapter 1
2011-09-27 22:26:51
INTD Chapter also lecture from sept

INTD Midterm 1 Review
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  1. Notion of Development / Underdevelopment
    arose after WWII in speech by Harry Truman (1949)- idea of "backwards" society (gave examples of underdeveloped areas - no food, disease, poverty compared to developed - scientific progress and industrialization) as criteria for measuring underdevelopment

    Implies there is a scale that nations can be compared on
  2. First, Second, Third, Fourth World
    • NATO - 1st
    • Nations under the Warsaw pact- 2nd,

    these two became irrelevant after fall of Berlin wall

    third was everyone else - term stuck - negative connotation, implies world heirarchy

    fourth is a newer term, used to describe the poorest of the poor, where there is lots of conflict, or it refers to the indigenous communities
  3. Newly Industrialized Countries

    4 criteria of NIC status
    Emerged in 70's

    Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan recently Turkey and Malaysia

    economic transformation of countries formerly considered to be developing, aka "emerging markets"

    • criteria:
    • 1. manufactured goods contribute 30% of GDP
    • 2. manufactured goods as 50% of total exports
    • 3. shift in employment from agriculture ot industry
    • 4. per capita income of at least $2000 USD (1991)
  4. 2 important roles of labeling (use of language in determining dev)
    work to make existing practices seem legit

    shape future policy making
  5. Alfred Sauvy
    Tiers Monde (3rd World) - 1952

    bottom layer of social pyramid. Applied to countries w/ diverse economic, social, political histories which had different paths of development

    eventually took on the connotation of poverty at national level
  6. Developing Areas / countries
    newest term, more positive

    defined by countries that have a GDP under a certain level, used by the UN

    poor countries and countries that require social, and economic development
  7. Alternatives: South and Global South
    South: geographical ocation but some exceptions - Austrailia, N. Zeland

    Global South - better able to incorporate centrality of historical and contemporary patterns of wealth and power into loosely defined concept
  8. Development most frequently associated w/ growth of what (waht time pd) uder influence of who's theories?
    growth of economy - 1950's and 60's

    under influeces of Walt Rostow's thoeries - Stages of Economic Growth (1950)
  9. GDP

    how does it relate to poverty reduction
    Gross Domestic Product

    sum of total economic activity of a country

    result of agricultural productivity or industrialization but associated with poor working conditions, environmental degradation, inflation

    poverty reduction: happens quicker when coupled with improvements in income distribution

    makes poverty reduction easier but not necessary

    poorest least likely to benefit from trickle down economics
  10. GNP
    Gross National Product

    sum of total economic activity that happens on national soil
  11. GDP per capita
    this is the average income per inhabitant

    most widely used measure of how countries are doing in terms of development
  12. GNI per capita
    Gross National Income / captia

    used by World Bank, essentially GDP
  13. PPP
    Purchasing Power Parity

    takes into account different buying power of a dollar in different economies

    (convert currencies into USD)
  14. Difference btw economic growht and economic development
    development implies increase in living standards

    ec. growth is good indicator of industrialization levels but not of...

    social and physical environment (ec. growth doesnt account for prices of subsistence products, only those on the market)
  15. Jeffrey Sachs
    prominent development economist

    argued that current wealth disparity btw developed and developing nations is almost entirely caused by small differences in growth rates in the period since 1820

    (we assumed wealth would trickle down but GDP/capita is average wealth, says nothing about distribution)
  16. Distribution of Income
    measure of how the wealth of a country is distributed among its population (how much do rich have, how much do poor have in comparison)
  17. Growth with Equity / Social?
    Growth w Equity - does not usually happen? Wealth does not always trickle down, usuallyy gets reinvested into industries

  18. 2 ways of measuring income inequality:
    1. Dividing population into equally populous strata (quintiles or deciles) and comparing the avg. incomes of these different strata to eachother (income of wealthiest 20 to poorest 200)

    2. Gini coefficient - more common, between 0 and 1, lower = better
  19. Dudley Seers
    (1969) - development as the realization of the potential of human personality (social barriers and inhibitions of unequal society distort personalities of both rich and poor) --> "what are the necessary conditions for a universally acceptable aim, the realization of the potential of human personality

    • Concluded that 6 conditions are necessary:
    • 1. Adequate income to cover basic needs of survival
    • 2. employment (including non-payed social roles that provides identity and respect)
    • 3. Improve distribution of income
    • 4. Education, esp. literacy
    • 5. Political participation
    • 6. Being part of a nation that politically / economically dependent
  20. Social Capital (Francis Fukyama). undermined by what?
    Dudley Seers' theory undermines broad social trust and social capital...

    - the extent to which individuals are willing to cooperate in the pursuit of shared goals --> usually thought to be essential to development of civic / democratic culture.
  21. 3 factors why inequality is a common feature in developing countries
    1. impact of (neo-)colonial ecnomic relations --> led to unequal social relations based on slavery, feudalism, and land ownership patterns that still have influence today

    2. Characteristics of late industrialization --> use of capital intensive technology - reduce the employment of potential GDP growth

    3. Inadequate / non-existent social safety nets and regressive tax systems --> prevent redistribution of national income towards poor/middle classes
  22. Poverty: Absolute, Moderate, Relative
    Absolute - below minimum level of income for survival - survival threatened; cant make basic ends meet (1993 - less than 1 USD / day)

    Moderate - basic needs are barely met, but survival is not actually threatened (2 USD / day)

    Relative - does not threaten daily survuval but cant participate actively in society (Ex: no computer, cant look for jobs)
  23. Denis Goulet

    3 core values of development (what it should promote

    • 1. life sustenance - basic survival requirements (food, clothing, health, shelter)
    • 2. self-esteem (dignity/identity of individual)
    • 3. freedom (expanded range of choice and freedom from "servitudes")
  24. Amartya Sen
    (1999) - "Development as Freedom"

    Economic growth should be used as a means to achieve other social objectives (increasing people's freedom) - poveryt limits ppls ability to improve their lives

    Capabilities approach?
  25. HDI
    Human Development Index - constructed by UNDP in 90's

    Measures life expectancy at birth (food, health care, safety from violence), education (adult literacy, gross enrollment in primary/secondary schools) , standard of living (GDP w PPP)
  26. HPI
    Human Poverty Index (UNDP)

    • - % of pop not expected to live beyond 40
    • - % of pop w/ no access to health care,
    • - % of malnourished children
  27. GNH
    Gross National Happiness Index (Bhutan 1971)

    psychological and social indicator

    • 1. Promotion of sustainable development
    • 2. Cultural values
    • 3. Conservation of natural environment
    • 4. Establishment of good government
  28. Cosmopolitainism
    (FOR global redistribution)

    argue the principles of justice imply moral obligation to help poor across national boundaries (boundaries are not overridingly ethically important) glob justice implies set of responsibilities to ppl everywhere
  29. Charles Jones (1999) - three main types of justification for global redritributice justice
    Consequentialist (Peter Singer) - assesses morality of an action based on goodness or value of outcome - too idealistic?

    Contractarian (Charles Betz and Thomas Pogge) - moral norms are justified according to the idea of contract or mutual agreement - political philosophy (hobbes, locke, rawks)

    Rights Based (Jones and Henry Shue) justifies moral claims on the basis of fundamental entitlements to act or be treated in a speciic way. Justifications for this type of morality are complex - include the idea that we have rights b/c we have interests or bc of our status
  30. Arguments against global redistributive justice

    Communitarianism, Libertarian (neo-liberalism)
    • Communitarianism
    • - political and social community is morally relevant (moral discussions can only be understood among people sharing common culture,language, history etc.)
    • - justified in giving moral preferece to needs of fellow citizens special bonds and collective enterprise create relationships of reciprocity

    • Libertarian (Robert Nozik)
    • - primacy of individual right to freedom and non-interference (value on the right to obtain and retain property)
    • -state of affairs should be assessed not just on the basis of outcomes (wealth, pverty) but on the basis of procedures
  31. Positionality
    suggests that researchers or development practitioners must be aware of and reflect upon the social and power relationships in which they are embedded, particularly their position relative to the local people with whom they interact. (not always easy to assess so take care to do so )
  32. Development theorists lifestyle abroad, development tourist
    development workers expected to live modestyl w/ ppl they are assisting

    high moral/ethical standards - democratic accountability, but locally spread the wealth

    development tourist - jet in and out of poor countries dispensing advice with little understanding of local conditions
  33. Development workers - more listening, less talking
    they should enable ppl, esp. the poor, oppressed, and marginalized, to organize and improve political, social and economic situation - West is not the only way