Human Biology ch 15

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  1. Spongiform encephalopathy
    Infectious disease of the brain our bodies can't fight - misfolded proteins
  2. pathogens
    organisms that cause disease
  3. infectious
    when a pathogen finds a host
  4. microbes
    small - can only be seen with a microscope
  5. bacteria
    single cell organisms - prokaryotic
  6. plasmid
    small round extra chromosonal DNA
  7. what is the structure and function of the cell wall
    composed of carbohydrates and proteins
  8. capsule of bacteria
    helps bacteria attach to cells within tissues they infect
  9. pili
    help bacterial cells attach to each other and pass genes
  10. binary fussion
    how bacteria reproduces
  11. steps to binary fussion
    • chromosome copies
    • chromosomes attach to plasma membrane
    • starts to separate-new cell wall created
    • cell growth
    • indentaion and separation
  12. bacterial infection occurs in your body using your own cells nutrients
  13. why do we feel symptoms when bacteria growth occurs in our bodies?
    effects of toxins secreted by bacterial cells
  14. why have bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?
    • natural selection through overuse
    • some bacteria carry genes that allow them to be resistant
  15. MRSA
    deadly infection that resists antibiotics
  16. anthax
    • lethal bacteria if inhaled
    • lives in soil
    • infectious but not contagious
  17. botulism
    • affects nervous system
    • soil dwelling
  18. E coli
    • lives in intestines
    • comes from eating undercooked meat
  19. tetanus
    • produces toxins that affect nervous and muscular system
    • found in soil
  20. staphylococcus
    • lives on skin
    • causes infections
  21. virus
    • not living
    • can't reproduce by themselves - need a host cell
    • a strand of DNA and a protein coat
  22. why are virus not considered living?
    • can't reporduce by themselves
    • not composed of cells
  23. capsid
    protein coat surrounding a virus
  24. viral envelope
    • made of cell membrane from host cell
    • may contain protein
  25. how does a viral infection happen?
    a virus gains access to cell by fusing its envelope with the host's cell membrane
  26. latent virus
    virus that is dormant in the body
  27. west nile virus
    transmitted by mosquito, affects brain and spinal chord - paralysis
  28. three examples of eukaryotic pathogens
    • tapeworm
    • athlete's foot
    • jock itch
    • malaria
    • giardiasis
    • schistomiomiasis
  29. how are people infected with protozoans
    water and food contamination w/feces
  30. how are people infected with worms?
    raw or undercooked food
  31. prion
    naturally occuring protein produced by brain cells that when misfolded causes spongiform encephalopathy
  32. giardiasis
    water born cyst, causes severe diahrrea and gas
  33. schistosomiasis
    carried by fresh water snails, caused by tapeworms
  34. tapeworm
    from ingesting raw or undercooked beef, causes intestinal pain and diahrea
  35. What happens in spongiform encephalopathy
    nerve cells clog with misfolded proteins and cease to function, cells burst and infect other cells
  36. vector born transmission
    mosquito-transmits through intermediate organism
  37. five methods of infection
    • direct contact
    • indirect contact
    • vector-borne
    • inhalation
    • ingestion
  38. first line of defense
    • skin
    • mucus membranes
    • don't target specific pathogens
  39. second line of defense
    • white blood cells
    • inflammation
    • defense proteins
    • fever
    • internal - doesn't target specific pathogens
  40. third line of defense
    • lumphocytes
    • attack specific pathogens
  41. natural killer cells
    non specific cells attack tumor cells and virus invaded body cells on first exposure
  42. complement proteins
    • circulate in blood
    • help other defense mechanisms
  43. lymphocytes
    • white bood cells
    • travel through body moving in spaces between cells and tissues or transported via blood andn lymph node system
  44. lymphatic system
    • tonils and adenoids
    • thymus
    • bone marrow
    • spleen
    • lymph nodes
    • lymphatic vessels
  45. antigen
    molecule foreign to host and stimmulates immune system
  46. T lymphocytes
    t cells when antigen is present in body
  47. b lymphocytes
    b cells -when an antigen is present secrete antibodies
  48. antibodies
    bind to and inactivate antigens
  49. differentiate active vs passive immunity
    • babies have passive immunity
    • adults have active - accumulated from an individual's lifetime
  50. allergy
    immune response that occurs without a pathogen
  51. immunce response
    ability to respond to an infection
  52. Lymphocytes are produced from stem cells of bone marrow and released into the bloodstream.
  53. t cells have different receptors
  54. why do autoimmune systems happen
    a person's immune system attacks itself
  55. examples of autoimmume diseases
    • MS
    • diabetes
  56. humoral immunity
    protection afforded by B cells
  57. cell mediated immunity
    • T cells
    • immunity dependent on involvement of cells
  58. helper T cells
    • T4 cells
    • boosters of immune system
    • detect and alert B and T cells that infection in occuring
  59. Why do prions not illicit an immune response?
  60. What is Aids
    How does it kill?
  61. How do we prevent an epidemic of prion disease?
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Human Biology ch 15
2011-10-03 22:48:26
human biology chapter 15

Chapter 15
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