Medical Terminology Ch. 5

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Anonymous
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104820
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Medical Terminology Ch. 5
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2011-10-06 21:13:18
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Integumentary system
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Integumentary system key terms
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  1. Androgen
    Generic term for an agent (usually a hormone, such as testosterone and androsterone) that stimulates development of male characteristics
  2. Ductule
    very small duct
  3. scrotum
    puch of skin in the male that contains the testicles
  4. synthesis
    formation of a complex substance by the union of simpler compounds or elements
  5. synthesize
    to produce by synthesis
  6. adip/o
    lip/o
    steat/o
    fat
  7. cutane/o
    dermat/o
    derm/o
    skin
  8. hidr/o
    sudor/o
    sweat
  9. ichthy/o
    dry, scaly
  10. kerat/o
    horny tissue; hard; cornea
  11. myc/o
    fungus (fungi)
  12. onych/o
    ungu/o
    nail
  13. pil/o
    trich/o
    hair
  14. scler/o
    hardening
  15. seb/o
    • sebum, sebaceous
    • ex: seb/o/rrhea: discharge of sebum. Seborrhear is an excessive secretion of sebum from the sebaceous glands
  16. squam/o
    scale
  17. xen/o
    foreign, strange
  18. xer/o
    dry
  19. -cyte
    cell
  20. -derma
    skin
  21. -therapy
    treatment
  22. an-
    without, not
  23. epi-
    above, upon
  24. -hyper
    excessive, above normal
  25. sub-
    under, below
  26. Tumor Grading:
    Grade I
    • tumor cells well differentiated.
    • Close resemblance to tissue of origin, thus, retaining some specialized functions
  27. Tumor Grading:
    Grade II
    • Tumor cells moderately differentiated.
    • Less resemblance to tissue of origin, More variation in size and shape of tumor cells, increased mitoses
  28. Tumor Grading:
    Grade III
    • Tumor cells poorly to very poorly differentiated
    • Only remotely resembles tissue of origin, marked variation in shape and size of tumor cells, greatly increased mitoses
  29. Tumor Grading:
    Grade IV
    • Tumor cells very pooroly differentiated
    • Little or no resemblence to tissue of origin, extreme variation in size and shape of tumor cells
  30. abcess
    localized collection of pus at the site of an infection (characteristically a staphylococcal infection)
  31. acne
    inlammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin with characteristic lesions that include blackheads (comedos), inflammatory papules, pustules, nodules and cysts; usally associated with seborrhea; also called acne vulgaris
  32. alopecia
    partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, anticancer medication, or a skin disease; commonly called baldness
  33. Bowen disease
    Form of intraepidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis; also called Bowen precancerous dermatosis
  34. cellulitis
    • diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
    • characterized by light glossy appearance of skin, localized heat, redness, pain, swelling, and occasionally, fever, malaise, and chills.
  35. chloasma
    pigmentary skin discoloration usually occuring in yellowish brown patches or spots
  36. comedo
    typical small skin lesion of acne vulgaris caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging and excretory duct of the skin
  37. dermatomycosis
    infection of the skin caused by fungi
  38. ecchymosis
    skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow; commonly called a bruise
  39. eczema
    chronic skin inflammation characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs, and possibly itching
  40. erythema
    redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries
  41. eschar
    damaged tissue following a severe burn
  42. impetigo
    bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture
  43. karatosis
    thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin (such as a callus or wart)
  44. lentigo
    small brown macules, especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposure, usually in a middle-aged or older person
  45. pallor
    unnatural paleness or absence of color on the skin
  46. pediculosis
    infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushes, combs, or headgear
  47. petechia
    minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin
  48. pressure ulcer
    skin ulceration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in bedridden patients; also known as decubitus ulcer
  49. pruritus
    intensive itching
  50. psoriasis
    chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales caused by excessive developmentof the basal layer of the epidermis
  51. purpura
    any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissues, particularly beneath teh skin or mucous membranes, producing ecchymoses or petechiae
  52. scabies
    contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact
  53. urticaria
    allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patches called wheals or hives
  54. verruca
    epidermal growth caused by a virus; AKA warts. types include plantar warts, juvenile warts, and vereal warts.
  55. vitilgo
    localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches
  56. skin test (ST)
    any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it
  57. Skin Test:
    Intradermal
    Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observing the skin for a subsequent reaction
  58. Skin Test:
    Patch
    skin test that identifies suspected allergens by topical application of the substance to be tested (such as food, pollen, and animal fur), usually on the forearm, and observing for a subsequent reaction
  59. Skin Test:
    Prick
    Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by placing a small quantity of the suspected allergen on a lightly scratched area of the skin
  60. Biopsy: Needle, punch, shave, Frozen section
    • Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination:
    • removal by hollow needle, hollow punch, surgical blade, or frozen tissue for immediate examination
  61. chemical peel
    chemical removal of the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses; also called chemabrasion
  62. debridement
    removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes, or chemical agents
  63. dermabrasion
    rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis
  64. fulguration
    tissue destruction by means of high-frequency electric current; also called electrodesiccation
  65. cryosurgery
    use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tissue, such as tumors, warts, and unwanted, cancerous, or infected tissue
  66. incision and drainage (I&D)
    process of cutting thu a lesion such as an abscess and draining its contents
  67. Skin graft
    surgical procedure to transplant healty tissue by applying it to an injured site
  68. Skin graft:
    allograft
    transplantation of healthy tissue from one person to another person; also called homograft
  69. Skin graft:
    autograft
    transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another iste in the same individual
  70. Skin graft:
    synthetic
    Transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern
  71. Skin graft:
    xenograft
    transplantation (dermis only) from a foreign donor (usuallya pig) and transferred to a human; also called heterograft
  72. antifungals
    Alter the cell wall of fungi or disrupt enzyme activity, resulting in cell death (nystatin, itraconazole)
  73. antihistamines
    inhibit allergic reactions of inflammation, redness, and itching caused by the release of histamine
  74. antiseptics
    topically applied agents that inhibit growth of bacteria, thus preventing infections in cuts, scratches, and surgical incisions
  75. corticosteroids
    decrease inflammation and itching by suppressing the immune system's inflammatory response to tissue damage
  76. keratolytics
    destroy and soften the outer layer of skin so that it is sloughed off or shed
  77. parasiticides
    kill insect parasites, such as mites and lice
  78. protectives
    cover, cool, dry, or soothe inflamed skin
  79. topical anesthetics
    block sensation of pain by numbin the skin layers and mucous membranes
  80. Bx, bx
    biopsy
  81. BCC
    basal cell carcinoma
  82. CA
    cancer; chronological age; cardiac arrest
  83. decub
    decubitus (ulcer)
  84. derm
    dermatology
  85. FS
    frozen section
  86. ID
    intradermal
  87. IMP
    impression (synonymous with diagnosis)
  88. IV
    intravenous
  89. subcu, Sub-Q, subQ
    subcutaneous (injection)
  90. ung
    ointment
  91. XP, XDP
    xeroderma pigmentosum

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