Study Guide Ch 6 & 7.txt

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Study Guide Ch 6 & 7.txt
2010-03-14 20:26:26
Psych Ch 6 & 7

Psych Ch 6 & 7
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  1. What is allopathic medicine based upon?
    Observation, scientific research and objective explanations.
  2. What is the primary goal of holistic mental health care providers?
    To help clients develop strategies to achieve harmony within themselves and with others, nature and the world.
  3. What does NCCAM stand for?
    National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  4. What two basic groups are CAM therapies divided into?
    Body-based and energy-based
  5. What percentage do recent studies suggest that people suffering from mental disorders use CAM therapies?
  6. What is the function of the NCCAM?
    To seek scientific validation for CAM therapies
  7. What is the focus of body-based CAM therapies?
    Working with the body�s natural abilities to heal itself.
  8. What are whole medical systems built on?
    Complete systems of theory and practice
  9. What do all systems teach?
    That wellness is a state of balance and illness is an imbalance.
  10. What does Ayerveda focus on?
    The innate harmony of the body, mind, and spirit.
  11. What is homeopathy?
    A therapeutic method that uses natural substances in micro-doses to relieve symptoms.
  12. How does naturopathy view disease?
    As an alteration in the process by which the body heals itself.
  13. What does traditional Chinese medicine base its view on?
    That the body is a balance of yin and yang
  14. What is the difference between yin and yang?
    Yin is cold, slow, passive; yang is hot, fast, active
  15. How do biologically based practices attempt to improve the human condition?
    Through the use of substances extracted from nature.
  16. What are the six principles of naturopathy?
    Healing power of nature, identify & treat cause of disease, do no harm, physician is teacher, treat whole person, prevention
  17. What is aromatherapy?
    The use of essential oils to promote health and well-being
  18. What are body based practices?
    Therapy that involves moving some part of the body
  19. What does a chiropractor do?
    Uses manipulation to help improve the relationship and help the body heal
  20. What should be monitored in a pt on chelation therapy?
  21. What does a decrease in potassium cause?
  22. What is chelation?
    Tx using the chemical EDTA to bind with heavy metals and remove them from the body
  23. What is chelation most often used to treat?
  24. What is the purpose of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing?
    To help reprocess traumatic memories by using controlled eye movements
  25. What is the purpose of massage?
    Enhance well-being
  26. What is phototherapy most often used to treat?
    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
  27. What is phototherapy?
    The use of bright lights to tx depression
  28. What two energy fields are energy-based therapies based upon?
    Veritable and putative
  29. What do practitioners of energy medicine believe?
    That illness results when the body�s energies are out of balance
  30. What do followers of mind-body medicine believe?
    That the mind and spirit have the ability to affect the body and its functions
  31. Research has found that what percent of a therapeutic response could be the result of the client�s belief?
  32. What is expressive therapy?
    The use of creative activities to decrease stress
  33. What are the four elements associated with meditation?
    Concentration, attention to one item while excluding all other thoughts, mindfulness, altered state of consciousness
  34. What is spirituality?
    An individual's sense of meaning and purpose in life
  35. How does NCCAM define prayer?
    An active process of appealing to a higher spiritual power, specifically for health reasons
  36. What to practitioners of energy medicine believe in?
    A vital, life-force energy that flows through the human body
  37. What two parts is energy medicine divided into?
    Biofield therapies and bioelectromagnetic field therapies
  38. What is the purpose of acupuncture?
    To stimulate points to restore energy or qi balance within the body
  39. What does biofeedback teach the pt?
    To control physical responses while monitoring the pt by machines
  40. What is biofeedback useful in treating?
    Anxiety, hypertension, insomnia, headaches, and ADD disorders.
  41. What is Qi Gong?
    A system of movement, regulation of breathing and meditation designed to enhance the flow of qi throughout the body
  42. What is Reiki?
    A life force energy that flows through one�s body
  43. What is the practice of therapeutic touch based upon?
    Laying on of the hands to encourage the body�s energies to return to a balanced state
  44. What is the function of pulsating electromagnetic therapy?
    It enhances bone healing and is claimed to be effective with sleep disorders and headaches
  45. Why is animal-assisted therapy successful?
    Animals are consistent and nonjudgmental, they are always accepting and help ease loneliness.
  46. What foods are eliminated in the pt with schizophrenia?
    Wheat and milk products
  47. What is the function of music on the body?
    It stimulates the body to release neurotransmitters that increase well-being
  48. What are psychotherapeutic drugs?
    Powerful chemicals that produce profound effects on the mind, emotions, and the body
  49. How do psychotherapeutic drugs work?
    They act mainly on the body�s nervous system by altering the delicate chemical balances within that system
  50. What is the primary responsibilities of health care providers of pts on psychotherapeutic drugs?
    To recognize therapeutic versus unwanted effects
  51. What system is responsible for �fight or flight�?
    Sympathetic nervous system
  52. What are the four classes of psychotherapeutic medications?
    Antianxiety, antidepressants, antimanics, antipsychotics
  53. What is the function of an antipsychotic?
    Helps curb hallucinations and loss of reality
  54. What are antimanics used to treat?
    Mood or emotional disorders
  55. Why are benzodiazepines prescribed for?
    To provide sedation, induce sleep, prevent seizures; mainly used to decrease anxiety
  56. What is the function of an Antianxiety med?
    Reduce the psychic tension of stress
  57. What is the onset of action of a benzodiazepine?
    1 hour
  58. Why is a physician more likely to prescribe buspirone (Buspar)?
    Its not habit-forming, does not impair memory, has minimal side effects
  59. What are some examples of benzodiazepines?
    Lorazepam (Ativan), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium)
  60. What should the pt be advised NOT to take while on Antianxiety medications?
  61. How are Antianxiety meds prescribed?
  62. What is the physicians first choice in the treatment of depression?
  63. How do antidepressants work on the body?
    They increase certain neurotransmitter activities
  64. How long does it take for the effects of an antidepressant to be noticed?
    1-4 weeks
  65. What is a hypertensive crisis?
    Sudden, severe elevation in BP
  66. Why do depressed pts attempt suicide when taking antidepressants?
    Because increased energy levels can lead to a renewed interest in suicide
  67. What are some examples of antidepressants?
    Mirtazapine (Remeron), bupropion (Wellbutrin)
  68. Why is a pt more likely to comply with tx while on Lyrica?
    Because side effects are fewer
  69. Other than anxiety, what else is Lyrica used to treat?
    Seizures and neuropathic pain
  70. What are the side effects of SSRIs?
    Dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, anorexia, sexual dysfunction, visual and urinary disturbances
  71. What are some examples of SSRIs?
    Fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), setraline (Zoloft)
  72. What are anticholinergic side effects?
    Dry mouth, nose & eyes; urinary retention & sedation
  73. What is mania?
    A state of excitement, great elation, overtalkativeness, increased motor activity, fleeting grandiose ideas & agitated behaviors
  74. What is lithium currently used to treat in the US?
    Manic episodes and pts with bipolar disorders
  75. Where is lithium absorbed?
    Into the bloodstream
  76. When taking lithium, what must a pt be cautioned about?
    Balancing their salt intake, fluid intake and activity
  77. What happens to a pt on lithium if their blood levels are too low?
    Manic behavior will return
  78. What level of lithium is considered toxic?
    1.5 mEq/L or more
  79. What three areas are the major guidelines for care of pts taking lithium?
    Prelithium workup, educating pt to maintain blood levels of the drug, monitor pt for side effects or toxic reactions
  80. When is lithium taken?
    At the same time every day
  81. What are some commonly prescribed antimanics?
    Clonazepam (Klonopin), lithium (�lith�), gabapentin (Neurontin)
  82. What is another name for antipsychotics?
    Major tranqs or neuroleptics
  83. What are most antipsychotic meds used to treat?
    Schizophrenia, acute mania, organic mental illnesses
  84. What are some non-traditional uses for antipsychotics?
    Nausea, vomiting, intractable hiccups
  85. What is the function of the parasympathetic nervous system?
    Conserve energy and provide balance
  86. What is the sympathetic response from the ANS?
    Dilated pupils, expanded lungs, increased blood sugar
  87. What is the sympathetic response from the ANS?
    Slows heart rate, decreases circulating blood volume, respiratory response
  88. What are the most commonly prescribed antipsychotics?
    Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), haloperidol (Haldol), quetiapine (Seroquel), risperidone (Risperdal)
  89. What are extrapyramidal side effects?
    Abnormal movements produced by an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain
  90. What are the five basic responsibilities relating to psychotherapeutic drugs?
    Assess clients, coordinate care, admin meds, monitor & evaluate response, teach clients
  91. What is included in a complete health history?
    Current living situation, family structure, and daily activities; past medical, family & social histories
  92. What is the nurse�s function in coordinating care?
    To coordinate and ensure that each component of the treatment plan is carried out, advocate, consult, and encourage client towards wellness
  93. Who�s responsibility is it to monitor clients for drug effectiveness and adverse reactions?
    The nurse
  94. Who�s responsible for helping clients and their significant others to adapt to change?
    The health care provider�s
  95. What is important of each client while on psychotherapeutic drugs?
    Must be prepared to safely take meds, monitor for side effects daily, know that course of action to take when side effects occur
  96. What is noncompliance?
    An informed decision made by a client not to follow a prescribed tx plan
  97. Why do psychiatric clients choose to discontinue their meds?
    Distressing side effects or nature of their problem
  98. What is informed consent?
    Process of presenting clients with ALL info about their tx to help them make a voluntary and knowledgeable decision
  99. When can a pt NOT be forced to take their psychotic medications?
    In nonemergency situations
  100. What is dystonia?
    Impaired muscle tone (rigidity in the muscles that control gait, posture, and eye movements)
  101. What is akathisia?
    The inability to sit still
  102. What is akinesia?
    Absence of physical and mental movement
  103. What is tardive dyskinesia?
    Irreversible side effect of long-term tx that produces involuntary, repeated movements of the muscles in the face, trunk, arms and legs.
  104. What is a parasympathetic nervous system action?
    The smooth muscles of the lungs constrict and restrict airways
  105. Why must salt intake be monitored in clients who are receiving lithium?
    Salt and lithium compete for excretion in the kidney
  106. Which type of medicine is based solely on observation, scientific research, and objective explanations?
  107. A client is being seen for posttraumatic stress disorder. Which complementary and alternative therapy would be appropriate?
  108. Which of the following types of aromatherapy would promote relaxation in a client with an anxiety disorder?
  109. A client with seasonal affective disorder may be treated successfully with what body-based practice?
  110. What energy-based complementary and alternative medicine practices has been effective for smoking cessation?
  111. Which of the following complementary and alternative therapies would be successful in a client who has agoraphobia?
  112. A client with atherosclerosis is found to have low serum potassium. What tx may be the cause of low potassium in this client?
    Chelation therapy
  113. What person is known as the father of allopathic medicine?
  114. A client with a fracture of the femur would benefit most from which therapy?
    Pulsating electromagnetic therapy
  115. Whole medical systems are built on complete systems of what?
    Theory and practice
  116. Assessment of a client reveals dryness of the mouth, blurred vision, excessive sweating, and urinary retention. These findings are consistent with which type of reaction?
    Anticholinergic reaction
  117. When teaching a client with an anxiety disorder about her buspirone (BuSpar) prescription, what important information should the nurse include?
    The risk of sedation is lessened with this drug.
  118. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which neurotransmitter is used?
  119. The nurse should include what information for a client prescribed lithium?
    Balance fluid and sodium intake.
  120. A client who is taking an antipsychotic for schizophrenia should be advised to avoid alcohol for which reason?
    CNS depression
  121. A client develops muscle rigidity, tremor, pacing, and incontinence. These are extrapyramidal side effects (EPSEs) of what?
  122. The nurse instructs the client taking an MAOI to avoid foods that contain tyramine. This is an example of which client care guideline?
    Teach the client about the drug
  123. Subsequent to a 2-week inpatient psychiatric admission, a hospitalized pt with schizophrenia, who has been prescribed an antipsychotic medication for 2 months, is hallucinating and delusional and has disorganized speech. What nursing action is appropriate?
    Ask the physician for a liquid form of the drug.