Biochem Test 2

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skballar
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104899
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Biochem Test 2
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2011-09-28 14:11:21
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Biochem test
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biochem test 2
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  1. t/f synthetases are enzymes that combine two molecules together to make a bigger molecule
    true
  2. t/f increasing the substrate concentration of an enzyme catalyzed reaction will produce a linear increase in the reaction rate
    false
  3. t/f proteins that have useful biological functions represent a tiny, tiny fractino of possible proteins
    true
  4. t/f it is not possible to oxidize a molecule without increasing the oxygen content of the molecule
    false
  5. t/f "biochemical" high energy bonds are those bonds that have a relatively large difference in energy between the oxidized and reduced states
    false
  6. t/f in the enzyme complex alpha keto glutarate dehydrogenase, lipoic acid is present as a prosthetic group
    true
  7. t/f enzymes can catalyze reactions that are otherwise impossible
    false
  8. t/f noncompetitive enzyme inhibitors increase the Vmax
    false
  9. t/f prions have high percentages of beta helical structure
    true
  10. t/f all enzymes are proteins
    false
  11. t/f the reactions of pyruvate dehydrogenase occur in the endoplasmic reticulum
    false
  12. t/f when proteins fold they have less energy content when unfolded
    true
  13. t/f enzymes increase the rates of chemical reactions they catalyze by decreasing the energy difference between the reactants and products
    false
  14. t/f because they do not have mitochondria, mammalian red blood cells do not have the ability to perform anaerobic glycolysis
    false
  15. t/f all enzymatic reactions involving the formation or utilization of "biochemical high energy bonds" are physiologically irreversible
    false
  16. t/f some proteins cannot undergo reversible denaturation
    true
  17. t/f a manufacturer of a multi-B-vitamin dietary supplement correctly cliams that their product helps to "unlock the energy in the foods we eat"
    true
  18. t/f physiologically irreversible metabolic reactions may be defined as those for which there is no enzyme to catalyze the reverse reaction
    true
  19. t/f the specific activityof an enzyme is a description of the reactants accepted and the products produced by that enzyme
    false
  20. t/f in general noncompetitive enzyme inhibitors will not structurally resemble the substrate
    true
  21. t/f coenzyme A is often involved in phosphate group transfer reactions
    false
  22. t/f oxidation of a molecule, in general, increases teh energy content of hte molecule
    false
  23. t/f most biological oxidation reactions involve only single electron transfers
    false
  24. t/f succinyl coA contains "biochemical" high energy bonds
    true
  25. t/f enzyme catalyzed reactions that have a small deltaG are physiologically reversible
    true
  26. t/f conversion of glucose to 2 pyruvate through the reactions of glycolysis is physiologically irreversible
    true
  27. t/f cellulose in wood is a polymer of glucose
    true
  28. t/f peptide bonds vehave as if they were double bonds
    true
  29. t/f some redox cofactors can dissociate from their enzymes and catalyze single electron transfer reactions when they accumulate in their reduced forms
    true
  30. t/f acid diesters are generally unstable and release energy when they are hydrolyzed
    true
  31. t/f enzymes do not obey the laws of chemistry and physics
    false
  32. the first molecule derived from the carbons of glucose in the process of glycolysis that contains a biochemical high energy bond is _______
    1,3-biophosphate-D-gluterate ???? hard to read
  33. 3 structural features of a polypeptide that might de-stabilize an alpha helix are
    addition of a Dic sterme ??? hard to read, addition of the proline, and hydrophobic R groups in lipids
  34. Vmax can be used as a measure of ______ while Km can be used as a measure of _______
    • affinity for an enzyme and substrate for one another?? hard to read
    • 50% Es and 50% EI ??
  35. two beneficial outcomes related to the ability of cells in your body to undergo anaerobic glycolysis are___
  36. 4 B vitamins required in their cofactor forms for conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA __
    FAD, NAD, COA, TPP
  37. 3 ways that enzyme activities may be regulated by covalent alterations are
    phosphorilation, dephosphorilation, and ???
  38. 3 possible ways to cause protiein denatureation are
    raise temperature, mechanically strengthen, and lower pH
  39. substances that are capable of disrupting non-covalent bonding interactions in proteins are called
    chatotrophe substances??
  40. starting at 4 degrees celcius, two effects that raising the temperature will have on an enzyme catalyzed reaction are
    increases reaction rate and decreases the energy of activation
  41. Give 2 redox reactions in which energy released from oxidizing the metabolite gets captured directly in the product molecule by the formation of a "biochemical high energy bond"
  42. two substances formed in muscle cells as the result of anaerobic glycolysis that contribute to muscle soreness are
    lactic acid and free radicals
  43. two isomerization reactions from glycolysis that result in the same kind of changes in the substrates and products of the reactions are
    • DHAP --> glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
    • glucose-g-phosphate --> ???-phosphate
  44. define the term "vitamin" as it is commonly used
    vitamins are nutritional substances for the lock there of the body
  45. t/f endothermic reactions are those that result in the release of excess energy as heat
    false
  46. t/f proteins with complex energy diagrams cannot be denatured
    false
  47. t/f in order to oxidize a molecule it is necessary to incorporate oxygen atoms into it
    false
  48. t/f in general, when the substrate has a chiral center, the enzyme will accept only one of a pair of optical isomers as its substrate
    true
  49. t/f double stranded DNA and RNA absorb light at a wavelength of 269 nm more stronglythan single stranded DNA and RNA
    false
  50. t/f insulin can regulate gene expression in cells
    true
  51. t/f the purpose of both DNAand protein folding is compaction
    false
  52. t/f enzymes get more active as the pH increases
    false
  53. t/f specificity is a measure of an enzyme's ability to catalyze a reation with a molecule
    false
  54. t/f UV radiation will cause thymine dimer formation and single strand breaks in DNA
    true
  55. t/f reaction rates always contain a concentration term
    true
  56. t/f intra-strand base pairing in RNA loops can only be A-U or G-C
    false
  57. t/f teh 64 codons of mRNA encode 64 different amino acids
    false
  58. t/f enzymes supply the necessary energy of activation for the reactions they catalyze
    false
  59. t/f the overall process of glycolysis is physiologically irreversible
    true
  60. t/f kinase reactions are always physiologically irreversible
    false
  61. t/f one of the similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic chromosomal DNAs is that they both take the form of a negative supercoil
    true
  62. t/f those physiological reactions that are physiologically irreversible do not need to be regulated
    false
  63. t/f ribozymes catalyze chemical reactions involving nucleic acids
    true
  64. t/f it is not possible for proteins to be infective agents
    false
  65. t/f most polypeptide sequences are not capable of folding into structures that are biologically useful
    true
  66. t/f affinity is measure of an enzyme's ability to catalyze a reaction with a molecule
    false
  67. t/f NADH contains less energy than NAD+
    false
  68. t/f enzymes will have a temperature at which they are maximally active
    true
  69. t/f pyruvate is more oxidized than glucose
    true
  70. t/f many drugs exert their therapeutic action by inhibiting certain enzymes
    true
  71. t/f denaturation alters the primary structure of roteins
    false
  72. t/f the order of addition of inhibitor and substrate to an ESI complex in a simple non-competitive inhibitor situatin is generally not important
    true
  73. what reapir mechanismis used to correct de-aminated bases in DNA?
  74. please suggest 3 possible reasons why protein cannot be directly translated (synthesized) from info encoded in DNA
    • Protenis too large to leave nucleus, DNA is stored in the nucleus and robosomes generally make proteins- locational barrier,
    • there needs to be a mechanism of correction found in having RNA- defense,.... -1 ??
    • and finally DNA= master copy so need mechanism to remove immuno-alternative splicing
  75. 3 possible ways to denature proteins are
    increase temperature, change pH, and add chanthropie ??
  76. 4 different enzyme activities that participate in DNA replication are
    helicases, RNA polymerases, ligases, and topisomerases??
  77. in order to convert kinetic values (V max) for an enzyme to enzyme concentrations you need a value called the
    Km value- affinity of ESI formation
  78. the affinity constant for an inhibitor interaction with an enzyme is
    Ki
  79. 3 bases found in DNA that are subject to de-amination reactions are
    adenine, guanine, and cytosine
  80. 2 different ways to regulate enzyme activities by covalently modifying the enzyme molecule are
    1,3-bisphosphao-D-glycerate?? and phosphorenol pyruvate??
  81. two catalytic feats that enzymes do very well that other catylists don't necessarily do well are
    • target specific substrates and products
    • undercontrol of mechanisms to regulate efficiency in cell
  82. ________ is the oxidizing agent of glycoysis
    ?
  83. all of the following are true about the A form of the DNA double helix except:
    A. wider relative to the B form
    B. decreased number of base pairs per turn relative to the B form
    C. favored when there is very little water
    D. has major and minor grooves
    E. right handed
    B. decreased number of base pairs per turn relative to the B form
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. hyperglycemia
    a. is a condition where the blood is low in free fatty acids
    b. causes water to accumulate in tissues
    c. is the direct result of overheating
    d. inhibits glucose transporters throughout the body
    e. can cause capillary blood vessel walls to thicken at the expense of the vessle lumen
    ?.... not a

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