Q 4.15

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  1. principal organs of the urinary system; accessory organs are the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
  2. regulates the content of blood plasma to maintain "dynamic constancy," or homeostasis, of the internal fluid environment within normal limits
    urinary system
  3. internal structures of the kidney
    cortex and medulla
  4. comprise much of the medullary tissue; papilla is at the tip of each pyramid and release urine through multiple ducts
    renal pyramids
  5. where cortical tissue dips into the medulla between the pyramids
    renal columns
  6. cuplike structure in each renal papilla to collect urine
  7. _______calyces join to form_____calyces,which in turn join to form the ______ ______
    minor; major, renal pelvis
  8. renal pelvis narrows as it exits the kidney to become the_____
  9. acts as a collection basin to drain urine from the kidney
    renal pelvis
  10. are highly vascular
    blood vessels of the kidneys
  11. large branch of the abdominal aorta; brings blood into each kidney
    renal artery
  12. between the pyramids of the medulla and the renal artery branches
    interlobular arteries
  13. extend toward the cortex, arch over the bases of the pyramids, and form the arcuate arteries
    interlobular arteries
  14. from the arcuate arteries, these arteries penetrate the cortex
    interlobular arteries
  15. extend to the nephrons (microscopic functional units of kidney tissue)
    afferent arterioles
  16. tube running from each kidney to the urinary bladder; composed of three layers
  17. mucous lining, muscular middle layer, and fibrous outer layer
    ureter layers
  18. collabpsible bag located behind the pubic symphysis made mostly of smooth muscle tissue; lining forms rugae; can distend considerably
    urinary bladder
  19. functions as a reservoir for urine before it leaves the body and aided by the urethra, it expels urine from the body
    urinary bladder
  20. folds when urinary bladder collapse; allow for expansion and contraction; allows the bladder to distend
  21. small mucous membrane lined tube extending from the trigone to the exterior of the body
  22. bottom part of the urinary bladder
  23. lies posterior to the pubic symphysis and anterior to the vagina
    urethra in females
  24. after leaving the bladder, passes through the prostate gland where it is joined by two ejaculatory ducts; from the prostrate, it extends to the base of the penis, then through the center of the penis, ending as the urinary meatus; part of the urinary system as well as the reproductive system
    urethra in males
  25. as bladder volume increases, micturition contractions (of detrusor muscle)_____ and the internal urethral sphincter_____
    increase; relaxes
  26. sphincter that has muscles that contract at first, then at appopriate time, they relax to release urine
    external urethral
  27. the microscopic functional units, compromise the buld of the kidney; each of these is made of two regions (renal corpuscle and renal tubule) and connects to a shared collecting duct
  28. two nephron regions
    renal corpuscle & renal tubule
  29. made of glomerlus tucked inside a Bowman's capsule; located within the cortex of the kidney
    renal capsule
  30. cup-shaped mouth of the nephron that is formed from by parietal and visceral walls with a space between them
    bowman(glomerular) capsule
  31. formed by pedicels in the visceral layer that are packed closely together
    filtration salts
  32. prevents the filtration slits from enlarging under pressure
    slit diaphragm
  33. network of fine capillaries surrounded by Bowman capsule
  34. pores in capillary walls that permit filtration
  35. located between glomerular capillaries; various structural and functionaly support functions
    mesangial cells
  36. lies between glomerlus and bowman capsule
    basement membrane
  37. formed by glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and the visceral layer of bowman capsule; function is filtration
    glomerular capsular membrane
  38. first part of the rental tubule nearest to bowan capsule; follows a winding, convoluted course
    proximal convoluted tubule
  39. renal tubule segment just beyond the proximal tubule; consists of a thin descending limb, a sharp turn, and an ascending limb; ascending limb made of thin ascending limb followed by thick ascending limb
    henle (nephron) loop
  40. convoluted tubule beyond the henle loop
    distal convoluted tubule
  41. located where the afferent arteriole brushes past the distal convoluted tubule
    juxtamerular apparatus
  42. made of macula densa (wall of distal tubule and juxtaglomerular) cells surronding afferent arteriole
    juxtamerular apparatus
  43. important to maintenance of blood flow homeostasis by reflexively secreting renin when blood pressure in the afferent arteriole drops
    juxtamerular apparatus
  44. straight duct joined by the renal tubules of several nephrons
    collecting duct
  45. collecting ducts of one renal pyramid converge to form _____ _______ that opens at a renal papilla into a major calyx
    one tube
  46. enters glomerular capillary network
    afferent atrieole
  47. leaves glomerlus and extends to the peritubular blood supply
    efferent artieole
  48. straight arterioles that run alongside henle loop
    vasae rectae
  49. surround renal tubule
    peritubular capillaries
  50. a nephron with a renal corpuscle near the medulla and a henle loop that drips into the medulla
    juxtramedullary nephron
  51. a nephron with a henle loop that doesnt dip into the medulla but remains almost entirely within the cortex; they constitue 85% of the total nephrons
    cortical nephron
  52. chief functions of the kidney
    process blood and form urine
  53. basic functional unit of the kidney
  54. forms urine by filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion
  55. movement of water and protein-free solutes from plasma in the glomerulus into the capsular space of the Bowman capsule
  56. movement of molecules out of the tubule and into peritublar blood
    tubular respiraton
  57. movement of molecules out of peritubular blood and into the tubule excretion
    tubular secretion
  58. first step in blood processing; occurs in renal corpuscles
  59. from blood in the glomerular capillaries, approx. 180L ____and_____filter into bowman capsule each day; takes place through the glomerular capsular membrane
    water and solutes
  60. occurs as a result of a pressure gradient (effective filtration pressure)
  61. occurs rapidly because of the increased number of fenestrations
    glomerular capillar function
  62. determined mainly by glomerular hydrostatic pressure and therefore directly related to systemic blood pressure
    glomerular filtration rate
  63. second step in urine formation; occurs as a result of passive and active transport mechanisms from all parts of the renal tubules
  64. a major portion of this occurs in the proximal convoluted tubules
  65. most water and solutes are recovered by ____, leaving only a small volume of tubule fluid left to move on to the Henle Loop
  66. actively transported out of tubule fluid and into blood
  67. passively transported out of tubule fluid by sodium cotransport mechanisms
    glucose and amino acids
  68. the maximal capacity of reabsorption that depends on carrier availability
    transport medium
  69. passively move into blood because of an imbalance in electrical charge
    chloride, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions
  70. movement of _____and _____ into blood causes an osmotic imbalance, moving water passively into blood
    sodium and chloride
  71. approx. half of urea passively moves out of the tubule, with the remaining urea moving on to the henle loop
  72. mechanism in the henle loop that concentrates sodium and chloride in the interstitial fluid of renal medulla
    countercurrent multiplier mechanism
  73. mechanism in vasae rectae that maintains high solute concentration in medullary interstitial fluid
    countercurrent exchange mechanism
  74. water is reabsorbed from the _____ ___
    tubule fluid
  75. urea is picked up from the ____ _____in the descending limb
    interstitial fluid
  76. both of these are reabsorbed from the filtrate in the ascending limb, where the reabsorption of salt makes the tubule fluid dilute and creates and maintains a high osmotic pressure of the medulla's interstitial fluid
    sodium and chloride
  77. reabsorbs sodium by active transport but in smaller amounts than in the proximal convoluted tubule
    the distal convoluted tubule
  78. secreted by the posterior pituitary and targets the cells of distal tubules and collecting ducts to make them more permeable to water
    antidiuretic hormone
  79. with reabsorption of water in the collecting duct, urea concentration of the tubule fluid____, which causes urea to diffuse out of the collecting duct into the meduallary interstitial fluid
  80. participates in a countercurrent multiplier mechanism
  81. along with the Henle loop and vascae rectae maintains the high osmotic pressure needed to form concentrated urine and avoid dehydration
  82. the movement of substances out of the blood and into tubular fluid
    tubular secretion
  83. secretes urea by diffusion
    descending limb of the henle loop
  84. secrete potassium, hydrogen, and ammonium ions
    distal tubule and collecting ducts
  85. hormone that targets the cells of the distal tubule and collecting duct cells
  86. causes increased activity of the sodium potassium pump
  87. secretion of hydrogen ions____with increased potassium pump
  88. influences water reabsorption
  89. as water is reabsorbed, the ____ _____ of urine is reduced by the amount of water removed by the tubules
    total volume
  90. reduces water loss
  91. secreted by the adrenal cortex
  92. increases distal tubule absorption of sodium, thereby raising the sodium concentration of blood and thus promoting reabsorption of water
  93. secreted by atrial muscle ribers, promotes loss of sodium by urine, and opposes aldosterone, thus causing the kidneys to reabsorb less water and thereby produce more urine
    atrial natriuretic hormone
  94. maintains a constant GFR by regulating resistance in afferent arterioles; protects GFR function from rapid blood pressure variations
    tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
  95. dependent on macula densea cells and the juxtaglomerular apparatus; may influence reninangiotensin mechanism
    tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
  96. rapid and effective regulation of GFR by changes in afferent arterioles smooth muscle contraction and relaxation
    myogenic mechanism
  97. related to the total amount of solutes other than sodium excreted in urine
    urine volume
  98. the more solutes, the more ____, in general
  99. example of why you would have a high-hormone level
    birth control
  100. approx. 95% water with several substances dissolved in it
    urine composition
  101. result of the protein metabolism; includes urea, uric acid, ammonia, and creatinine
    nitrogenous wastes
  102. mainly the following ions: sodium, potassium, ammonium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, and sulfate; amounts and kind of minerals vary with diet and other factors
  103. during disease, these bacterial poisons leave the body in urine
  104. ex: urochromes
  105. may spill into the filtrate
    high-hormone levels
  106. ex: blood, glucose, albumin, casts, and caliculi
    abnormal constituents
  107. process blood to adjust its content to maintain a relatively constant internal environment
  108. homeostasis of water and electrolytes in body fluids relies on proper functioning of the ____
  109. systems that are interdependent
    urinary and cardiovascular
  110. system that must operate properyly to ensure efficient kidney function
    endocrine and nervous
  111. sugar(glucose) in urine
  112. blood in urine
  113. pus in urine
  114. painful urination
  115. unusually large amounts of urine
  116. scant (barely sufficient or adequate) urine
  117. absence of time
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Q 4.15
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