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  1. genetic code
    system of nucleotides triplets in DNA and RNA contain info for synthesizing proteins into 20 amino acids
  2. gene
    fundemental units of heridetery consists of sequence of DNA bases that cary info. for synthesizing protein and ocupies chromosomal locus
  3. protein
    complex molecules formed by chains of amino acids or from polypeptide function as molecules and transprt molecules antibodies enzymes and hormones
  4. amino acids
    molecules formed by proteins
  5. ribosome
    structure composed of RNA found on ER site of protein synthesis
  6. chromosomes
    structurs composed of condensed DNA and supporting proteins
  7. polypeptide
    molecule made of amino acids
  8. codon
    3 nucleotides in mRNA that makes amino acids or the intintion or end of polpypeptide sequence
  9. mRNA
    strand of RNA synthesized in nucleus (transcription)carries info for sequence to amino scids to make specific protein into cytoplasm where ribosome is read and recorded( translation)
  10. tRNA
    RNA molecules that bind to specific amino acids and transprt them to ribosomesto be used in protein synthesis
  11. nucleus
    part f cel where genetic material i8s seperated from everything else by cytoplasm
  12. genotype
    genetic makeup of someone
  13. transcription
    is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA.
  14. tranlation
    messenger RNA (mRNA) produced by transcription is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein
  15. polygenic
    pheotype traits that result from combined action of more than one gene (complec traits)
  16. monogenic
    diesise from only one gene
  17. genome
    sum total of genes carried by individual
  18. crossing over
    exvhange of gentic material between homologous chromosomes during first prophase of meiosis (gentic recombination)
  19. mitosis
    somatic cell division in which a single cell divides to produce to identical daughtere cells
  20. phenotype
    observable or measurable feature of an organsim. can be anatomical,biochemical or behavioral
  21. homozogoes
    having same allele of gene on both members of homologous chromosomes
  22. heterozygoes
    having two different type of alleles on gene on pair of autosomes
  23. dominant
    the allele expressed when present on only one pair of homologous chromsomes
  24. recessive
    allele not expressed and autosomes
  25. codominant
    only in diploid org. which are two different alleles on autosomes and both are expressed
  26. DNA
    (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    double stranded molecule that carries genetic information. Each strand has nucleotides and held together by hydrogen bonds formed by complemanety bases
  27. meiosis
    cell division that occurs in testes or ovaries that leads to gametes
  28. zygote
    a fertalized egg
  29. linkage
    genes formed on same chromsomes and are linked. the closer on chromsome the greater linkage and less likely to be seperated during crossing over
  30. allele
    alternative version of a gene. different alleles distinguished by effects on genotype expression on same gene
  31. gametes
    sex cells
  32. trisomy
    genetic abnormality in which there are three copies, instead of the normal two, of a particular chromosome
  33. bases
    • variable components of nucleotides that form DNA,RNA.
    • DNA=A G T C
    • RNA=U replaces thymine
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test 1
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