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  1. T or F
    Specific Language Impairment refer to an impairment with otherwise normal intelligence?
  2. 3 Early researchers who explored issues related to what is now called SLI?
    • 1. Helmer Myklebust (1971)
    • 2. Paula Menyuk (1964)
    • 3 Lois Bloom (1967)
  3. Leonard (1999) terms used in the 1800's included (2 of them)
    • 1. Congential Aphasia
    • 2. Hearing mutism
  4. By the 1950's and 60's terms being used were? (3 of them)
    • 1. Receptive or expressive developmental aphasia
    • 2. Developmental Dysphasia
    • 3. Language learning disabled (LLD) or langugage learning impaired.
  5. Other terms used in the 1960's and 70's
    • 1. Specific language delay
    • 2. Developmental language disorder
    • 3. Childhood aphaisa
    • 4. Minimal brain dysfunction
    • 5. Subclinical brain damage
  6. Bruce Tomblin and Laurence Leonard definition of SLI?
    Language impairment is defined as a combinations of normal intelligence (IQ greater than 85) and language impairment.

    (a composite language measure falling more than 1.25 SD below the mean)
  7. Overall incidence in the general populations is what %?
    1% or 1 in 100
  8. Incidences in Kindergarten children are possibly as high as?
  9. What are the large scale epidemiological studies varied by (3 things)
    • 1. Subject age
    • 2 Assessment tools
    • 3. Diagnostic criteria
  10. Epidemiological evolution of SLI is based on ?
    recovery of "late talkers"
  11. Approximately _______% of children may be "late talkers"
  12. Approximately ________ of children catch up to typically developing by 4 years of age.

    So half do not= 7-8% incidence of SLI
  13. Do Familial aggregation studies suggest a genetic role?

    T or F
  14. Individuals with SLI are more likely to have a family history of language/learning impairment?

    T or F

    Parent, aunt, uncle with SLI in the family seem to be at greater risk in having SLI.
  15. The incidence in families with a history of SLI is estimated at approximately ____% - ____%.
  16. In twin studies there is a higher concordance in dizygotic twins than in monozygotic twins?

    T or F

    • higher in monozygotic twins- means from one egg.
    • dizygotic- 2 separate eggss
  17. What are the gender differences in SLI?
    What are the percentages?
    Prevelence slightly higher in boys than girls.

    boys 8% girls 6%
  18. Males are _______ times more likely to exhibit SLI?
  19. Some studies have suggested the role of fetal ______________ levels as a causative agent.

    A. Estrogen
    B. Testosterone
    C. Progesterone
    Answer (B)
  20. Some studies suggest that the % of girls and boys with SLI are not significant and some studies have found no difference?

    T or F
  21. Children in minority groups evidenced lower rates of SLI?

    T or F

    Rates are higher
  22. Name the minority groups of SLI in order from highest to lowest rates of prevealence.
    • 1. African-American
    • 2. Native American
    • 3. Hispanic
    • 4. Caucasian-White
  23. The diffence of prevelance in the minority groups could be contributed to risk factors such as ____________________.
    • Low SES
    • socialeconomic status
  24. What are the risk factors related to SES?
    • Low birth weight
    • Low income
    • Low maternal education
  25. What is one of the most salient risk factors for SLI?
    Low birth weight
  26. Smoking causes little effect to a childs language ablility, however the factors associated with parental smoking are more important risk factors for SLI.

    T or F
  27. SLI children is lower SES may have their difficulties compounded by __________________?
    their limited access to appropriate services.
  28. Who stated that Perceptual Defict are caused by possible auditory processing factors?

    Didn't word this question great, its under "Proposed Theoretical Accounts of SLI"

    - basically SLI people have problems with their auditory processing abilities.
  29. Who stated that suface features saliency?

    Didn't word this question great, its under "Proposed Theoretical Accounts of SLI"

    - meaning the morphological inflections at the end of sentences do not stand out to SLI people. ???? on my notes so be cautious.
  30. What does the perceptual deficit not explain?
    Does not explain the purely expressive type where comprehension of language features is intact.
  31. Linguisitic Deficit Account

    2 key things
    1. Missing or aberrant elements of underlying linguisitc elements ("universal grammar") that comprises their linguistic competence.

    2. Does not explain the slowness of vocab development in so many of SLI children prior to two years that is not related to grammatical development (neither does the perceptual deficit account)
  32. Which of the 3 "Theoretical Accounts" are the most straight forward and most down to earth.
    Normal Distribution Account
  33. What does the Normal Distribution Account state:
    1. That SLI Children are not impaired, they are simply at the lower end of the normal distribution of language abilities.

    2. If language ability is an aggregate of different abilities- allows for sub-average performance in various aspects of language. ?? not sure what this means.???
  34. Breakdown by type - According to the Diagnostic and Statisical Manual of Mental Disorders

    Expressive type has an estimated prevalence of about ___ to _____ %.
  35. Breakdown by type - According to the Diagnostic and Statisical Manual of Mental Disorders

    Mixed receptive-expressive type has about ___ %.

  36. Breakdown by type - According to the Diagnostic and Statisical Manual of Mental Disorders

    More controversial is the existence of _________ ________ _________, a subtype that is not included in the DSM-IV.
    pure receptive type
  37. What kind of approach used standardized test, language samples and informal observations?
    Holistic Approach- meaning multi demensional.
  38. If obtaining information using the Holistic approach you should a variety of ways to obtain this information such as?
    • 1. Standardized Tests - receptive vs. expressive
    • 2. Language samples
    • 3. Informal observations
  39. Diagnosis requires a set of postitive observations?

    T or F
  40. Negative Diagnois accomplished by excluding other possible causes such as:
    • 1. Hearing Impairment
    • 2. Cognitive impairments (normal nonverbal intelligence)
    • 3. Autism Spectrum disorders
    • 4. Motor impairment (CP)
    • 5. Selective Mutism
    • 6. Environmental deprivation, neglect or abuse
  41. What would you expect to see in a positive observations?

    I think this means the behavior that would make you think they are positive for SLI behavior?????????????????????
    • 1. Delay in expressive language after 24 months.
    • - documented through observ/lang samples
    • - limited vocabulary
    • - shorter than expected utterances
    • 2. Otherwise normal intelligence
    • 3. typically early develpoment in gestures, play, phonology, imitation, social interaction
    • 4. Formal Testing reveals expressive and possible receptive skills depressed by at least -1.5 SD
  42. What is the most commonly misdiagnosed disorder for SLI?
    Landau-Kleffner Syndrome
  43. Laudau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare, childhood ____________ disorder characterized by sudden or gradual development of childhood _________.
    • neurological disorder
    • aphasia
  44. What is childhood aphasia?
    the inability to understand or express language.
  45. Landau-Kleffner syndrome usually occurs in children between the ages of ___ and ___.
    5 and 7
  46. What is typically seen in children with LKS?
    - develop normally by then lose their language skills for no apparent reason.
  47. What is the key contrast in LKS and SLI?
    with SLI, children start out as "late talkers" and continue to lag behind their peers.

    with LKS, they are not late talkers, they are developing at a normal rate, then start to decline
  48. What are the cognitive characteristics of SLI?
    • 1. Dificiencies in symbolic play, rule learning, complex reasoning, and memory skills- suspected by not consistently confirmed.
    • 2. Slower rate of processing **** frequently have slower response time n percetual processsing tasks.
    • 3. Delayed processing at phonological levels
    • 4. Limited short term memory - problems with retrieval of info. from other memory systems and problems with processing and storage of information.
    • 5. Significantly greater trouble repeating longer and non-word than shorter non-words
    • 6. Have greater difficulty comprehending long sentences, irrespective of whether such sentenes are simple or complex
    • 7. Difficulities at phonological level, slowed word processing, memory and comprehension may contribute to dyslexia.
  49. Behavioral Characteristics of SLI include
    • 1. Behavior will be fairly typical of normally developing peers.
    • 2. Possible less social interaction, withdrawl, or inhibition
    • 3. May require a higher level of partner attention in verbal exchanges.
  50. Behavioral Characteristics

    Social behaviors of SLI
    • 1. Social behaviors and interaction frequently affected through depressed initiation and discourse skills
    • 2. Verbal initiations may rely more heavily on routinized activities that are repetitive and predictable in their linguistic elements.
  51. Behavioral Characteristics

    "Poor Friendship skills"
    • 1. Less sensitive to conversational initiations
    • 2. Find group activities and collaboration challenging
    • 3. Less likely to name a "best friend" indicating lowered perception of their own friendship status with others.
    • 4. Bullying - high correlation with low number of friends and high peer rejection which are often associated with being bullied.
  52. Behavioral Characteristics

    Child/Teacher Interactions
    • 1. Difficulty clarifying their questions or requests
    • 2. Clarifications may be limited to exact repetitions or are linguistically undifferentiated.
  53. Linguistic Characteristics

    Difficulty with semantics
    • 1. Limited vocabulary - slow to develop, particularly new "action words"
    • 2. difficulty with abstract words- especially with terms related to space, quanity, time or quality
    • 3. difficulties with multiple-meaning words
    • 4. problems with word retrieval- may use fillers, (um, so, well))
  54. Linguistic Characteristics

    • 1. Telegraphic forms when younger- shorter MLU persists
    • 2. May only produce phrases and incomplete sentences
    • 3. Difficulty identifying the referent in partner's questions
    • 4. Difficulty using and comprehending complex and compound sentences.
  55. Linguistic Characteristics

    What is the hallmark of SLI?
    • ***Morphology***
    • 1. Frequently omit bound morphemes
    • 2. Tendency to omit articles and pronouns in subject position.
    • 3. Greatest difficulty with language forms that are phonetically weak, sparse or irregular.
  56. Linguistic Characteristics

    Difficulty with Pragmatics
    • 1. Difficulty with assertiveness - tend to be withdrawn
    • 2. Responsiveness= difficulty reading others emotions
    • 3. Discourse
    • 4. Narrative Skills - difficulty with narrative structure, story components, effective use of pronouns and significantly fewer connectives.
  57. Linguistic Characteristics

    Difficulty with Literacy
    • 1. Deficits in print conventions, phonological awareness, metalinguistic abilities, narrative abilities that underlie reading abilities.
    • 2. Persisting difficulty with reading and writing that frequently lasts into adulthood.
  58. The deficits exhibited by SLI Children are heterogenous?

    T or F
    • True
    • a variety of specialist may be involved
  59. Name the different treatment techniques for SLI (8)
    • 1. Incidental/Milieu Teaching
    • 2. Focused Stimulation
    • 3. Self-Talk
    • 4. Parallel Talk
    • 5. Expansion
    • 6. Extension
    • 7. Mand-Model
    • 8. Recasting
  60. Define Incidental/Milieu Teaching; one of the treatment techniques for SLI
    • Settings, play therapy, unstructured
    • - interactions that arise out of everyday routines to cultivate communication and natural responding.
  61. Define Focused Stimulation; one of the treatment techniques for SLI
    • Clinician repeatedly models the targeted structure during a supporting activitey.
    • (bombardment)
  62. Define Self-Talk; one of the treatment techniques for SLI
    Clinician describes his or her own activities while playing with the child.
  63. Define Parallel Talk; one of the treatment techniques for SLI
    Clinician comments on the child's activities
  64. Define Expansion; one of the treatment techniques for SLI
    Clinician expands incomplete utterances into grammatically more complete structures.
  65. Define Extension; one of the treatment techniques for SLI
    • Build ups and Break downs. ex blue blocks
    • - Clinician comments on child's utterances adding new semantic information.
  66. Define Mand-model; one of the treatment techniques for SLI
    Clinician uses attractive materials to interest the child then mands (requests) a response from the child to obtain materials.
  67. Define recasting; one of the treatment techniques for SLI
    • Clinician repeats child's utterances wihle recasting (reformulating) it into different grammatical form. (ex. sentences are recast as questions)
    • ex. the boy is running
    • is the boy running
    • what is the boy doing?
    • - rephase helps with grammatical structure.
  68. Review Fast Forward in our notes, too much to add here.
  69. Outcomes

    Late talkers generally "catch up" in alnguage and reading skills by the early grades.
  70. SLI children are more varied?
    • -Some Catch up
    • -some continue to exhitbit depressed language skills compared to their other skills
    • -chldren who have not caught up continue to exhitbit reading difficulties even into adolescence and adulthood.
  71. Between ________ and ______ percent of preschoolers with early language impairment develop _______ difficulities later, often in conjuction with broader academic achievement problems.

  72. Regardless of a child's general cognitive ablilites or therapeutic history, in general the risk of reading problems is greatest when a childs language inpariment is severe in any area broad in scope over the preschool years.
    True or False
  73. Behavioral Outcomes

    The SLI group in one study had significantly __________ global self-esteem scores than the group with typical language ablilites.
  74. Adolescents with SLI have been shown to be more outgoing than their peers?

    T or F
    False - they tend to by shyer
  75. Olders adolescents with SLI are at risk of lower global self-esteem and experience shyness, although they want to interact socially.

    T or F
  76. Children with SLI have been shown to have ___________ social skills and fewer peer relationships, and were _________ satisifed with the peer relationships in which they participated when compared with their age-matched classmates.
    poorer, less
  77. When SLI persists, social skills are ___________ and may persist as __________ maladjustment in adulthood.
    depressed, social
  78. Variables related to Positive Prognosis
    (5) of them?
    • 1. Early onset and identification
    • 2. Early intervention
    • 3. Absence of other disorders (ex.no stuttering)
    • 4. Family Support
    • 5. Being Female
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